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DIABETES

Do n’t want to get diabetes, please avoid these 4 factors

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Now that diabetes is no longer a rare disease, many diabetics have begun to question that they usually pay attention to health, why do they get diabetes?Is it because I eat too much sugar, there are many reasons for diabetes, today I will explain to you in detail the causes of diabetes.Why do you get diabetes?The causes of diabetes are as follows: 1. Infection and infection occupy a very important position in all causes of diabetes, especially viral infections are very likely to cause type Ⅰ diabetes. Medical experts have found that many viruses can cause pancreatitis and induce diabetes through research.These viruses include encephalitis virus, myocarditis virus, and Coxsackie B4 virus.Insulin inflammation caused by viral infection will cause insufficient insulin secretion. At this time, everyone’s islet function will be abnormal, so that everyone’s blood sugar will rise and suffer from diabetes.In addition, the virus infection can also aggravate latent diabetes and become dominant diabetes.2. The vast majority of obesity type 1 diabetes is obese, and obesity is another important factor that induces diabetes. When you are in a frisbee, the number of insulin receptors on the fat cell membrane and muscle cell membrane is reduced.Harmony and ability will be reduced, the body’s sensitivity to insulin will be reduced a lot, resulting in the body’s use of sugar obstacles, resulting in increased blood sugar and diabetes.3. Less physical activity related clinical survey data shows that the probability of farmers and miners suffering from diabetes in our country is much lower than that of urban residents. It is speculated that it is likely to be directly related to less physical activity, and a large amount of physical activity can reduce weightPrevent the appearance of obesity, thereby increasing the sensitivity of insulin, so that blood sugar can be used reasonably without suffering from diabetes.Conversely, people who usually have less physical activity are prone to obesity, and their blood glucose cannot be properly used to induce diabetes.4. Diet structure If you eat a lot of high-fat food for a long time, it will inhibit the metabolic rate of sugar and fat, making everyone’s body very obese. At this time, it is very easy to suffer from diabetes, and perennial meat eaters suffer from diabetes.The odds are greater than the perennial vegetarians.

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Diabetes food high GI quick checklist: several types of foods rise in sugar quickly, and usually have less contact

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This year 47, patients with type 2 diabetes, have 5 years of age.I have n’t eaten much salt in the past 5 years, but I have had more injections than my peers have eaten.In the years of fighting diabetes, I gradually figured out some of the path of the disease, of which the second type is more serious.Before I start, I will not talk about experience. I plan to popularize some type 2 diabetes that everyone is familiar with but afraid of.According to incomplete statistics, the prevalence of diabetes in adults in China has exceeded 10% in 2018, of which type 2 is the main type, and type 1 accounts for 5 to 10% of the total number of people.There are many patients with diabetes in China, but many people cannot face it calmly, and even use the wrong method in treatment and conditioning.This is also my main purpose of writing this article. I will introduce the causes, symptoms, and control that people are most concerned about, and finally talk about personal experience.1. The etiology is similar to type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes also has a family inherited characteristic. This genetic characteristic is more obvious than type 1 diabetes.For example: one of the twins has type 1 diabetes, and the other has a 40% chance of getting the disease; but if it is type 2 diabetes, the other has a 70% chance of getting type 2 diabetes.In addition, obesity and age are also the main causes of type 2 diabetes, and I am one of the “victims”.According to research, excess body fat in body-centered obese patients is concentrated in the abdomen, and they are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those whose fat is concentrated on the hips and thighs.At the same time, more than half of patients with type 2 diabetes develop after the age of 55.Putting aside the above three factors, the decline in islet β-cell function, environmental factors, and unhealthy lifestyles are also the causes of type 2 diabetes.2. Symptoms The symptoms of diabetes are mainly due to high blood sugar (meaning that the fasting blood glucose concentration is higher than 6.1mmol / L, two hours after a meal, the blood sugar concentration is higher than 7.8mmol / L) and hypoglycemia (meaning that the fasting blood glucose concentration is lower than 2.8mmol / L)Two situations are caused.Of course, it does not mean that high blood sugar or low blood sugar symptoms mean diabetes. Ordinary people can also cause high and low blood sugar due to sports, diet, endocrine and metabolic disorders, but it should be noted that if ordinary people have one of these symptoms,It should be highly valued.Third, the treatment of type 2 diabetes because the cells in the body are not sensitive to insulin, resulting in high blood sugar.Therefore, in treatment, it can be controlled by means of insulin + drugs + reasonable diet exercise.I will not elaborate on this aspect of medication. After all, different people’s physiques and medication methods are different.But reasonable diet + exercise control is what every sugar lover must master, and it is especially important to pay attention to diet.Many friends around me, when I talk about diabetes, the first reaction is not to eat sugar, this view is actually wrong.For example, if there are more insulin injections or more exercise, sugar should be increased accordingly.We must recognize a point: only to achieve a relative balance between insulin, glucose, and exercise is the key to stabilize blood sugar.This balance point requires each sugar friend to control himself!In terms of diet, many people have also introduced the practice of ketogenic diet, namely: high fat ratio, low carbohydrate ratio, protein and other nutrients suitable formula diet.I do n’t know how others are doing. I followed this method, not eating starchy foods, but only high-protein foods. When I was very full, I had low blood sugar, which caused more serious consequences for my body.Later, I took low-glycemic index (GI) food for diet control, and my blood sugar control showed signs of improvement.The following is a search based on my information, and I will share a staple GI table for everyone. Welcome to the collection: GI Index Extended Knowledge: When the glycemic index is below 55, the food can be regarded as a low GI food; when the glycemic index is between 55 and 70In between, the food is a medium GI food; when the glycemic index is above 70, the food is a high GI food.High GI food enters the gastrointestinal tract with fast digestion, high absorption rate, fast glucose release, and high peak value after glucose enters the blood; low GI food stays in the gastrointestinal tract for a long time, low absorption rate, slow glucose release, and glucose peak valueLow, slow down.

Finally, I will talk about the feelings of illness in recent years: Many people learned that they had diabetes, and they linked this with terminal illness in their minds, and they were not interested in anything.For this kind of person, I would like to say that my 5-year history of diabetes has taken a lot of diabetes medicines, and I am still alive and kicking. I have a short trip with my wife and children in my free time.Therefore, as long as there is one day in the world, we cannot easily deny our lives and take medicines and diet control on time. There are no obstacles that can not be overcome.The original content of 39Health.com (www.39.net) may not be reprinted without authorization.For content cooperation, please contact: 0000 or 0000

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There are many question marks on the sugar control road?

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Diabetes patients should strictly control diet, which has almost become common sense.Only by making scientific arrangements on your diet can you better control your blood sugar levels.However, many people do not know much about how to arrange the diet of diabetic patients. Now, I would like to invite authority on nutrition to explain these basic common knowledge.How many meals a day should a diabetes patient eat?Under normal circumstances, it is recommended that patients with diabetes must follow the diet principle of eating less and eating more.You must avoid ingesting a large amount of food at one time. One is to slow down blood sugar fluctuations after meals, and the other is to try to avoid excessive heat accumulation and further increase blood sugar levels.In addition, eating less and eating more food can also prevent the occurrence of diabetes and hypoglycemia to a certain extent. It is recommended that each diabetic patient eat at least 5 meals a day to increase the number of side meals.How to choose a staple food for people with diabetes?The staple food for diabetic patients can be based on coarse grains, and eat less fine grains as much as possible, because the more fine grains the higher the blood sugar value after eating.Common coarse grains include oats, buckwheat, yam, etc. These foods are very suitable for people with diabetes.For people with diabetes with normal physical activity, do not consume more than 100 grams of staple food per day.How to eat meat?For diabetic patients, the amount of meat eaten every day should be controlled at 100-150 grams, and everyone should reduce the way of frying and roasting when cooking, eat fish, chicken and duck as much as possible, and reduce pork, beefRed meat intake.How to drink milk?People with diabetes can drink milk properly, but need to choose low-fat fresh milk or skimmed fresh milk.People who are lactose intolerant can use sugar-free yogurt instead.It is recommended that the total amount of milk that you drink every day reaches 300 grams, and you can drink it multiple times.How should I eat vegetables?For diabetic patients, they should eat more green vegetables with more dietary fiber. The total amount of vegetables eaten every day should not be less than 500 grams. The cooking of vegetables should be based on cooking and stewing.Diabetics need diet control, but they cannot diet blindly. This can easily cause blood sugar fluctuations or trigger hypoglycemia, which may cause tragedy.In daily diet, following the above principles is more conducive to controlling blood sugar.39health.net (www.39.net) original content, can not be reproduced without authorization, offenders must be investigated.For content cooperation, please contact: 0000 or 0000

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A high-sugar diet can increase uric acid, induce kidney stones, and even shorten life!

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[1] PLoS Med: Unhappy obese children, and even risk of death. Obesity in childhood is associated with an increased risk of death after middle age, but recent research has found that the shadow of death may start to hang over children’s heads very early.on.This study analyzed data from 41,359 obese children from Sweden’s National Registry of Childhood Obesity Treatment (BORIS).After accumulating more than 190,000-year follow-up data, a total of 104 child deaths were recorded, with a median age of death of 22 years.The proportion of deaths among childhood obese people was 0.55%, compared with 0.19% in the control group. More than a quarter of deaths were related to obesity.The increased risk of child death is associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression.Researchers point out that childhood obesity not only increases the risk of death from various diseases after middle age, but also relates to the risk of death in early adulthood.It is also necessary to strengthen psychological and social support in the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents, while treating physical obesity, and avoiding the risk of death related to mental illness.[2] Intern J Obes: It ’s okay to eat full meals. You may be too fat to eat too much!Are you getting fatter these days at home?Holidays are a peak period for people’s weight gain. Half of the KPIs for weight gain in the United States are completed during the Christmas to New Year holidays!To determine the secret of weight gain during the holidays, recent studies have compared people’s weight changes before and after the holidays. During the holidays, participants’ energy intake, appetite, frequency of eating out, and the appeal of food pictures to people have been evaluated.It was found that the weight of 23 obese adults did not change significantly during the period before the holiday (? 0.86 ± 0.42 kg), but the weight increased significantly during the holiday (0.41 ± 0.42 kg).However, their total energy expenditure did not change, suggesting that energy expenditure may not be the main cause of increased body mass.Satisfaction before and after meals was significantly correlated with weight gain during the holidays, and the frequency of eating out during holidays increased significantly.Researchers point out that getting fat during the holidays is mainly because you eat too much, not move too little-but you will still get fat when you study and cook at home during the holidays![3] Nat Metab: Obese intestinal bacteria can flee, or participate in the development of type 2 diabetes. Visceral obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The intestinal flora may play an important role in this relationship, butIt is unclear how the intestinal flora affects the extra-intestinal tissues and organs and the body’s metabolic processes.Recent studies analyzed the bacterial composition of blood, liver, and abdominal adipose tissue in patients with diabetes, and compared it with volunteers without diabetes, suggesting that bacteria may be involved in the development of type 2 diabetes.In patients with severe obesity, bacteria or bacterial fragments around the body are related to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, and bacteria or bacterial fragments are most abundant in the liver and omentum.Researchers have pointed out that obese patients have a higher permeability of the intestinal barrier, and bacteria and their fragments will cross this barrier to trigger the inflammatory process, which eventually leads to the inability of insulin to regulate blood sugar.The location and composition of the intestinal flora are equally important. The next study will explore whether pathogenic bacteria can trigger type 2 diabetes, and whether beneficial bacteria can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. Bacteria may be used to treat diabetes in the future.[4] Cell Metab: A high-sugar diet causes dehydration, increases uric acid, and affects lifespan. A high-sugar diet can cause thirst, obesity, and metabolic abnormalities, including type 2 diabetes and shortened lifespan.However, the effects of obesity and water imbalances on health and survival have not been elucidated.Recent research on feeding high-sugar diets to fruit flies has found that high-sugar levels can cause dehydration and even death in adult flies, and hydration can fully save their lives.However, high-sugar diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance are not related to water, but high-sugar diet mainly affects lifespan through uric acid-related pathways.High-sugar diet can promote the accumulation of uric acid and the formation of kidney stones. The formation of kidney stones will be further exacerbated by dehydration and imbalance of acid-base balance, which will affect lifespan through water-related pathways.Studies in humans have found that dietary sugar intake can predict circulating purine levels, suggesting that a high-sugar diet may have similar effects in humans.Researchers point out that the effect of a high-sugar diet on lifespan may not be related to obesity and insulin resistance.In this process, purine metabolism may mediate the relationship between a high-sugar diet and longevity, or it may be a target for intervention.[5] JAMA Netw Open: Asthma and Type 1 Diabetes are likely to come together. Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease among children worldwide. Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common autoimmune diseases in children.There is a certain relationship.To clarify the relationship between these two atopic and autoimmune diseases, a recent study from Sweden included 1,347,901 children born in Sweden recorded in the National Registry from 2000-2013, and an analysis of the 12,847 48 children availablePrevalence of asthma and type 1 diabetes in their half-brothers, half-brothers, half-brothers, and cousins.It was found that 9.5% of children had asthma, 0.3% of children had type 1 diabetes, and 494 children had both diseases.Asthma and type 1 diabetes are related at the individual level (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.27).Children with asthma have an increased risk of type 1 diabetes (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.27), but type 1 diabetes is not associated with asthma risk (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.75-1.12).Brothers and siblings with asthma have an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.42).Researchers point out that asthma and type 1 diabetes may congregate in families, and the family may have to watch out for the disease![6] JAHA: Do n’t be noisy!It’s made me diabetes!Living near the road may face traffic noise. These traffic noises may not only be noisy, but may also affect people’s health.Recent research from the city of Toronto, Canada, addresses this issue.The study included more than 700,000 citizens without a history of hypertension and more than 910,000 citizens without a history of diabetes between the ages of 35 and 100 years, and assessed the relationship between traffic noise in their places of residence and these two diseases.After 15 years of follow-up, it was found that for every 1/4 increase in noise level in the place of residence, the risk of diabetes increased by 8% (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07-1.09), and the risk of hypertension increased by 2% (HR 1.02, 95%CI 1.01-1.03).Noise between 11 pm and 7 am has similar effects on the two diseases.After adjusting for road traffic pollutants, the impact of noise is still significant.Researchers point out that long-term road traffic noise may increase the risk of diabetes and hypertension.A comment published at the same time pointed out that living next to the main road may be affected by the dual effects of traffic noise and traffic air pollutants, and there may be risks of chronic diseases.[7] Can Epi Bio Prev: High levels of HbA1c increase the risk of esophageal, liver, pancreatic and bladder cancer. Increased levels of diabetes and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) are related to cancer risk, but previous studies have been difficult to avoid body mass index and durationAnd the effect of hypoglycemic drug use on results.Recent studies using UK biobank data circumvent these issues.The study used data from more than 476,000 participants to analyze the relationship between diabetes, HbA1c levels, and cancer, with an average follow-up time of 7.1 years..
It was found that diabetes was associated with an increased risk of gastric, liver, bladder, endometrial, and lung cancer in smokers, but was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer.Compared to participants with normal HbA1c, smokers with elevated HbA1c had an increased risk of colon, liver, bladder, and lung cancer, and HbA1c increased participants had an increased risk of esophageal, liver, pancreatic, and bladder cancer, but prostate cancerRisk decreases.Researchers point out that, consistent with previous analysis, elevated diabetes or HbA1c levels are indeed associated with an increased risk of multiple cancers.The above content is only authorized for exclusive use by 39Health.com, please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright party.

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Dietary fiber is right. Diabetics have stabilized their blood sugar, reduced their blood lipids, and reduced their risk of death!

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It is often joked that when suffering from diabetes, there are only two things that cannot be eaten-“this can’t be eaten, that can’t be eaten” … but it’s not, the “abstinence” recipes of diabetic patients really make food patients extremely uncomfortableIt’s up!However, recent studies have found that intake of dietary fiber-rich carbohydrates by diabetics can effectively improve the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein [1-2], that is, eat the right typeMuch more effective than controlling intake!Can the “Eat Healthy” dream coveted by diabetes patients really be achieved?To live up to expectations, a recent review published in the journal PLoS Medicine reports the latest evidence that dietary fiber can help manage diabetes.This review analysis included 2 prospective cohort studies involving a total of 8,300 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, with an average follow-up of 8.8 years. Colleagues also included 42 clinical trials, which included 1789 pre-diabetic,Subjects with pre-diabetes type 1 or type 2.For the prospective study, the calculated reduction in all-cause and cardiovascular death risks of diabetic patients when daily intake of dietary fiber 19g and 35g was calculated and compared; in clinical trials,The difference of each index change is compared and analyzed.Heterogeneity tests were performed on all included studies by I2 statistic and Q-value statistical tests, and Egger’s test was used to evaluate whether there was bias.It is encouraging that through the intake of dietary fiber, various indicators and long-term clinical risks of patients with diabetes have been significantly improved.▎The results of the clinical trials of the well-controlled blood glucose showed that compared with the non-dietary fiber group, the HbA1c and fasting blood glucose in the dietary fiber group were effectively reduced (MD =? 2.00 mmol / mol, 95% CI:? 3.30 ~? 0.71; MD =? 0.56, 95% CI:? 0.73 ~? 0.38), and the results were unbiased.And in clinical trials without weight management, it was found that increased dietary fiber intake can improve glycated hemoglobin (MD =? 2.67 mmol / mol, 95% CI:? 4.18 ~? 1.16), and among weight managers,The improvement effect of dietary fiber was not significant.Effectively controlling blood glucose is the direct goal of intervention for diabetes. The intake of dietary fiber comprehensively corrects HbA1c and fasting blood glucose, laying a foundation for the health management of patients with diabetes.风险 The risk of death was reversed. The results of a prospective study showed that all-cause death was significantly reduced in the group with the highest dietary fiber intake compared with the group with the lowest intake (RR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.35 ~ 0.86, I2 = 0%), But there was no significant difference in cardiovascular death risk (P = 0.811).Among them, the dietary fiber intake of 35g / day reduced the risk of all-cause death by 35% (95% CI: 0.10 ~ 0.48) compared with the 19g / day intake group.Moreover, the results of the study are not affected by the type of diabetes, treatment methods and pre-diabetes in patients, suggesting that dietary fiber intake has important positive significance for long-term clinical outcomes in patients with diabetes.▎ stubborn blood lipids bowed their heads, dyslipidemia has always been accompanied by diabetes, is an important incentive for a variety of diabetes complications.Clinical trial results show that dietary fiber intake effectively reduces total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels, and significantly increases protective high-density lipoprotein; and dose-effect tests show higher dietary fiber intakeThe better the effect of improving blood lipids.▎Dietary fiber stuns other cardiovascular risk factors. Without reducing total energy intake, increasing dietary fiber intake can effectively improve multiple cardiovascular risk factor indicators, such as weight (MD =? 0.56 kg, 95% CI:? 0.98 ~? 0.13), BMI (MD =? 0.36kg / m2, 95% CI:? 0.55 ~? 0.16), and waist circumference (MD =? 1.42 cm, 95% CI:? 2.63 ~? 0.21).At the same time, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein levels, and insulin resistance were significantly improved with increased dietary fiber intake.Dietary fiber plays a role in reducing the overall risk of death in people with diabetes.At present, the recommended intake of dietary fiber in many relatively developed countries is about 20g / day [3], but the review study believes that increasing to 35g / day may benefit more and can effectively reduce the risk of premature death by 10% ~ 48%.At the same time, the study found that dietary fiber has significant improvements in blood glucose, weight, lipids, and C-reactive protein, providing important evidence for reducing the risk of long-term death.Dietary fiber has gradually become a shining “nova” in the diet spectrum because of its great benefits to the human body.Where does dietary fiber hide?.
In fact, dietary fiber is not mysterious, it is even opposite to us.Common vegetables, beans, fruits, and whole grains are important sources of dietary fiber.In addition, dietary fiber is an important energy source for intestinal probiotics. It can ferment and produce a variety of short-chain fatty acids to promote intestinal metabolism [4] and help improve intestinal nutrition and health.The above content is only authorized for exclusive use by 39Health.com, please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright party.

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Normal blood glucose varies by age?

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Many people think that blood glucose is related to age, and there are different opinions on this issue.Generally, we can divide into adults, elderly and children according to age. Then, blood glucose data does fluctuate slightly at different ages, but the fluctuation rate is not very large.Normal blood glucose varies by age?The statistics of the blood glucose and age comparison table are mainly to help everyone better understand whether their blood glucose falls within the standard range, and whether there is a problem of high or low blood glucose?Confirming whether the blood sugar is normal depends on fasting blood sugar and blood sugar level two hours after a meal. The combination of the two data can be used to compare the diagnosis of high blood sugar or diabetes.Children and adolescents (under 18 years of age): The fasting blood glucose value of adolescents should be between 5.0-7.2mmol / L, and the blood glucose value of two hours after a meal is 5.0-8.3mrnol / L.Of course, because children and adolescents are at the developmental stage, the endocrine level changes greatly, and the blood glucose range of children at different ages will change slightly.Adults (18-65 years old): The fasting normal blood glucose value should be less than 5.6mmol / L, and the blood glucose value two hours after a meal should be less than 7.8mmol / L. If the data is higher than these data after the test, there is a high possibility of high blood sugar.Even with diabetes.Elderly people (over 65 years of age): In general, the fasting blood glucose value of the elderly is less than 7.8mmol / L, and the blood glucose value of two hours after a meal is less than 11.1rnmol / L.Special populations: There are also some special populations, that is, the body itself suffers from other diseases, especially those who are critically ill, and the blood glucose level should be controlled between 7.8 ~ 10.Ommo / L.No matter what age you are in, you can’t have a problem with too high blood sugar levels. Try to control your blood sugar as close to the ideal level as possible.As for the data of the blood glucose and age comparison table, the above content is also summarized. In fact, strictly speaking, the blood glucose value is somewhat related to the age. It is necessary to always pay attention to the blood glucose value regardless of age, especially the obese people.In recent years, the population of patients with hyperglycemia and diabetes is getting younger. It is of great significance to protect health to take precautions in advance and reduce the incidence of diabetes.

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How to eat to be healthy?

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1 How to eat to be healthy?Stay away from sugars and saturated fatty acids!Diet has probably become the most important part of our lives. At the same time, research in recent years has also proved that diet is closely related to human life and health.Compared to focusing on the intake of a single nutrient, a comprehensive and reasonable nutrition mix can really improve our health.Recent studies from BMJ not only analyze the relationship between various nutrients and cardiovascular disease and the risk of death, but also propose a diet combination that can reduce cardiovascular risk and death risk, suggesting excessive sugars and saturated fatty acidsIngestion is the top two killer of health!This study used more than 195,000 participants who completed the Oxford Web-based 24-hour recall questionnaire to assess diet (WebQ) at least once in the UK’s Biobank database, and analyzed dietary carbohydrates, fats, and protein for cardiovascular effects.Impact of illness and death.After an average follow-up of 10.6 years, 4780 (2.4%) participants were found to have died unfortunately; 9.7-year follow-up revealed that 948 (0.5%) and 9,976 (5.0%) participants experienced fatal and non-respective deaths, respectively.Fatal cardiovascular event.The results of the analysis showed that the intake of three macronutrients of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins is closely related to cardiovascular disease, and the research results have a significant impact on dietary guidelines.The analysis showed that when carbohydrate intake accounted for 50% vs 70% of total energy, cardiovascular risk increased (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.48). Similar findings were found for sugars, but in starch or celluloseNo such relationship was found in intake.Monounsaturated fat intake (20% -25% vs 5%, 0.58, 0.51-0.66), polyunsaturated fat intake (5% -7% vs 12%, 0.78, 0.75-0.81), and saturated fat intake(5% -10% vs 20%, 0.67, 0.62-0.73) were related to the risk of death.What kind of food combination is healthy?Under the premise that total energy intake remains the same, using starch, polyunsaturated fatty acids or proteins to replace sugars can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and death; similarly, when polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins are used instead of saturated fats, there are similareffect.The final results of the analysis show that in order to keep the risk of death to a minimum, the diet pattern should consist of 10-30g of dietary fiber, 14% -30% protein, 10% -25% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 5% -7% polyunsaturated fatty acids per day., 20% -30% starch composition.Researchers point out that the relationship between macronutrient intake and health is not a simple and crude linear relationship, which may cause people a lot of confusion in understanding and following dietary guidelines.Although this study did not cover the specific types of added sugars, trans fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, animal / vegetable proteins, it still reveals that the intake ratio of different proportions of carbohydrates, fats and proteins is good forHealth effects, and also analyzes the health effects of specific ingredients such as sugar, starch, dietary fiber, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, etc., and puts forward suggestions for people’s healthy diet in the form of diet combinations, so thatIt’s easier for people to adapt to dietary guidelines.2 Afraid to draw blood is too painful?Drooling helps diabetes screening!Drawing blood and sticking fingers is a necessary part of blood glucose monitoring for diabetic patients. Currently commonly used blood glucose monitoring methods include HbA1c, continuous blood glucose monitoring, and self-blood glucose monitoring methods, but more or less blood must be taken.No matter whether blood is drawn or fingers are stuck, the pain of the flesh is inevitable … The serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) has been previously approved as one of the short-term blood glucose control indicators, and recent studies have tried to useThe saliva test is an indicator to assess blood sugar levels-will it be enough to spit out blood sugar in the future?This study from China included 641 participants without a history of diabetes. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine 1,5-AG levels in the saliva of participants and compared with blood test results.At the same time, the study also used the standards of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) to test participants’ blood glucose indicators, simulate the process of diabetes screening, and evaluate the saliva 1,5-AG’s help for screening.The results showed that saliva 1,5-AG levels were lower than those without diabetes (all P <0.05), saliva 1,5-AG was positively correlated with serum 1,5-AG, and negatively correlated with blood glucose and HbA1c(P <0.05).In order to screen for diabetes, the cutoff point of saliva 1,5-AG was set at 0.436 μg / mL at 0 minutes after a meal, and a sensitivity of 63.58% and specificity of 60.61% were obtained. The cutoff of saliva 1,5-AG at 120 minutes after a meal was obtained.A spot of 0.438 μg / mL yielded a sensitivity of 62.25% and a specificity of 60.41%.In other words, saliva 1,5-AG screening can indeed be used for screening and blood glucose monitoring of diabetic patients.And this study also found that the combination of fasting blood glucose testing with saliva can reduce the need for an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) by 47.22% compared with fasting blood glucose alone to screen for diabetes.The combined use of saliva detection and HbA1c can also reduce a large number of OGTT requirements. Compared with HbA1c combined with fasting blood glucose, HbA1c combined with saliva 1,5-AG 120 minutes after a meal can reduce the need for OGTT by 51.41%.Saliva 1,5-AG testing is expected to improve the screening process for diabetes.Researchers point out that in addition to 1,5-AG levels in saliva, levels of substances such as glucose, α-hydroxybutyrate, α2-macroglobulin, salivary amylase, and melatonin may also be related to blood glucoseLevel, the combined use of these indicators may further improve the effectiveness of diabetes screening.However, this monitoring method is affected by diet and drugs, and the detection method is not convenient enough. It may take a little time to enter the actual clinical application.3 A pound of milk per week, lower cardiovascular and cancer risk?Milk and dairy products are an important part of the diet of Westerners, as well as an important component of the Mediterranean diet, which is highly regarded by many diabetes dietary guides. However, in China, due to lactose intolerance and higher prices of dairy products,And the intake of dairy products is much less than in the West.The 2016 Chinese Dietary Guidelines recommend that adults consume a variety of dairy products per day, which is equivalent to approximately 300 grams of milk, but less than 2% of Chinese elderly people reach the recommended level.The relationship between milk intake and risk of all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and cancer death is unknown in the Chinese population.How much milk should I drink?A recent study published in the journal Clinical Nutrition gave us answers.A recent study from China used data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) to conduct a prospective cohort study that analyzed 18,214 participants over the age of 50 without a history of cardiovascular disease, of which 69.6% did not drink milk,14.7% 1-3 servings per week 15.8% More than 3 servings of milk per week (250mL of milk per serving).After a follow-up of 11.5 years, a total of 2697 people died, 917 died of cardiovascular disease, and 1029 died of cancer.The analysis found that compared with not drinking milk, 1-3 servings of milk per week were associated with cardiovascular disease (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.92), ischemic heart disease (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.38–0.85)) Was associated with a reduced risk of death from stroke (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63–0.94).Large intakes of milk are associated with an increased risk of death from overall cancer (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12-1.57) and esophageal cancer (HR 3.20, 95% CI 1.21-8.43).However, no large amounts of milk intake have been linked to lung, liver, gastrointestinal, colorectal or anal cancer.Studies have also found that higher milk intake is associated with lower blood pressure (including systolic and diastolic blood pressure), higher total cholesterol, and lower triglyceride levels, suggesting that milk intake may be beneficial for cardiovascular health.. Although the results in this study show that moderate milk intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk.However, milk intake may increase the risk of some cancers, so after offsetting the two, no significant relationship was found between milk intake and the risk of all-cause death.Researchers point out that the results of this study fill a gap in Chinese milk intake and death risk studies.As the elderly in China consume very little dairy products such as butter, cream, cheese, this study focused on milk and was not confused by other dairy products.Because the milk intake habits of Chinese people are quite different from those of Westerners, this study may be of unique value to guide middle-aged and elderly people in China to consume appropriate amounts of milk.The above content is only authorized by 39Health.com for exclusive use. Please do not reprint it without authorization from the copyright owner.

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DIABETES

Eat fruits and desserts like this to reduce fat conversion and give the liver a vacation!

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1 Fruit / Sweet food, before or after a meal?? “Appetizing desserts, of course, eat before meals.”? “Do not eat fruits before meals or one hour after meals, only eat two hours after meals.”? “The fruits in the morning are golden fruits, in the eveningFruit is rotten fruit. “” The time to eat fruit is actually selected based on the attributes of the fruit, and cannot be generalized. “” A dessert after a full meal, don’t be too comfortable. “” A woman has two stomachs,One is for eating, and the other is for dessert! “?” … “You must have heard this more than once. Some people say that eating fruit dessert before meal is good, and some people say that eating fruit dessert after meal.Well, there are different opinions.Gong said that the reasoned wife said that the wife is reasonable, but when do you eat it?You might think this way: Just be healthy, just eat a fruit dessert.Alright, let’s take a serious look.Unlike rice noodles, the main sugar in fruit desserts is not glucose, but fructose.What sugar is fructose?Fructose contains 6 carbon atoms and is also a monosaccharide. It is an isomer of glucose. It exists in a large amount in the fruit juice and honey in a free state. Fructose can also combine with glucose to form sucrose.Pure fructose is colorless crystal, it is not easy to crystallize, and is usually a viscous liquid.D-fructose is the sweetest simple sugar.Previous studies have shown that the liver is the main site of fructose metabolism.However, an article published in “Cell metabolism” offered a different view: the small intestine is the main site for glucose production from fructose metabolism, and the liver is just a reserve.However, whether this reserve army will be requisitioned will have both a dose effect (how much to eat) and a time effect (when to eat).The dose effect is understandable, after all, intestinal capacity is also limited; however, does it matter when to eat fruit?of course!It turns out that it is better to eat fruit after a meal. Researchers have studied the metabolism of fructose in the body through isotope tracking, and found that: Most of the fructose is broken down into glucose and organic acids in the small intestine, and then flows to the liver along the portal vein.Once the small intestine is overloaded, fructose that cannot be metabolized will return directly to the liver through the portal vein, which will use the reserve capacity of the liver and force the intestinal microbiota to change.Once the fructose metabolism pathway begins to work, the harm is quite real.In the liver, fructose undergoes the following metabolism: ① fructose ?? fructose-1-phosphate ?? triglyceride / long-chain fatty acid triacylglycerol (fat) ② fructose ?? glucose ?? glycogen is different from glucose, fructose is in the liverMedium is more easily converted to fat!This is why drinking sugary beverages / eating too much sweets is easier to gain weight than eating carbohydrates.In addition, sugar / fatty acid itself can promote liver cell apoptosis and cause liver damage.Therefore, this article draws the following conclusions: 1. After a full meal or a certain amount of sugar has been consumed, the pathway of metabolism of fructose in the small intestine is further activated, and the processing capacity of fructose is also higher.Therefore, in the case of a full meal, the small intestine’s ability to clear fructose will increase, and the liver will be rested accordingly.However, considering the increased metabolism of the small intestine, fructose will be more directly converted into glucose and enter the blood circulation.2. When ingesting fructose in a small amount (less than 1g / kg, about 500ml of soda), the small intestine is the main force; when eating a large amount of sweets / fruits for a short period of time, the small intestine will be overwhelmed even after a meal, which willMobilize the metabolism of the liver.2 Fruits / Sweets, what are you eating?The above article made constructive suggestions for us to eat sweets / fruits: (1) Juice and soda are not healthy, especially sweets.In the past, many high-fructose foods have always deceived the public under the guise of “0 fat”. In fact, fructose will be absorbed by the small intestine and converted into glucose. It should be as meaty as the high blood sugar.It also increases the burden on the liver.(2) If you must eat fruit juice, soda, or fruit with high sugar content, try to eat it after meals.At this time, the small intestine’s metabolic capacity is improved, which has a protective effect on the liver.
(3) Still adhere to the principle of stop-and-go: In addition to the staple food, a maximum of 60g of sugar a day (two medium-sized apples, or a 500ml bottle of soda).Believe me, eating too much sugar is bad for your weight, your gut flora, and your liver.(4) Try to choose fruits with more fiber and less sugar: for example, use small tomatoes instead of bananas and longan.Not only are they low in sugar, they also release fructose slowly, and they do not burden the small intestine in terms of dose or time.The above content is only authorized for exclusive use by 39Health.com, please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright party.

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DIABETES

Chinese study: patients have these two characteristics, exenatide has better hypoglycemic effect

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Due to the wide heterogeneity, the effect of different type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients receiving the same hypoglycemic drug is very different. Some people have good antidiabetic effects, while others may have poor results.This Chinese population study found that when receiving exenatide hypoglycemic treatment, T2DM patients with these two characteristics may receive better results.Exenatide is the first glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA). It is currently widely used in the treatment of T2DM. Such drugs can reduce weight and promote weight loss.However, there is widespread heterogeneity in T2DM patients, and there are significant differences in the response to exenatide in different T2DM patients. Specific genetic variations, patient characteristics, environmental factors, and drug interactions may all be influencing factors.It is unclear which variables predict the efficacy of exenatide.Considering that the factors that affect the efficacy of exenatide have important clinical significance (such as being helpful in guiding the individualization of diabetes treatment and promoting the rational use of drugs), researchers from China launched this study to determine predictableExenatide treatment response variables and assess the optimal threshold for these variables.How does the research work?This is a retrospective cohort study of T2DM patients who received exenatide twice daily as part of their diabetes care for at least 12 months.The researchers divided the participants into two groups (response group and non-response group) based on the hypoglycemic effect at 6 months of medication, and conducted a comparative analysis.In the UK National Institute of Health and Healthcare (NICE) guidelines on the use of GLP-1RA for the treatment of T2DM, the hypoglycemic response was defined as a decrease in HbA1c levels of ≥1.0% after 6 months of GLP-1RA, and weight response was defined as weight loss≥3%.Therefore, in this study, responders were defined as a reduction of HbA1c ≥ 1.0% or HbA1c <7.0% after 6 months of exenatide treatment, while non-responders were patients who failed to meet this target.The main objective of this study was to determine baseline predictors of exenatide glycemic response based on changes in HbA1c after 6 months of exenatide treatment.The study data were obtained from clinical and laboratory data extracted from the electronic medical record system of the endocrinology department of the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University. The time span was from January 2017 to September 2019.Parameters include gender, age, duration of diabetes, smoking history, drinking history, family history of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FPG), postprandial blood glucose (PPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), Postprandial serum insulin (PINS), baseline, and other diabetes medications taken at the same time as 3, 6, and 12 months of exenatide initiation.Inclusion criteria: This study included patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with T2DM. These participants received exenatide twice daily as part of the treatment of diabetes for at least 12 months before data collection.Exclusion criteria: Patients diagnosed with other types of diabetes (eg, type 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes), patients using other GLP-1 analogues, and missing data at the above time points were excluded from this study.Baseline characteristics of patients: Researchers reviewed a total of 343 T2DM patients treated with exenatide, of which a total of 148 met the inclusion criteria, and 92 of them reduced HbA1c by ≥1.0% or achieved at 6 months of medicationHbA1c <7.0% was included in the response group; the remaining 56 participants were included in the non-response group.There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age, weight, BMI, smoking history, drinking history, and taking other drugs at the same time.However, the duration of disease in the response group was significantly shorter than that in the non-responder group (P <0.001). The number of patients with a family history of diabetes in the non-responder group was higher than that in the response group (P <0.05).Baseline HbA1c levels and duration of diabetes predict hypoglycemic efficacy. To determine the variables that can predict exenatide's hypoglycemic response, researchers used binary logistic regression analysis to test the main predictors of exenatide glucose response.After adjusting for age, gender, BMI, smoking history, drinking history, taking diabetes drugs, blood glucose, plasma insulin and blood lipids at the same time, the baseline HbA1c and diabetes duration were determined as predictors of exenatide hypoglycemic response.Among them, patients with higher baseline HbA1c levels (OR 2.605, 95% CI 1.373-4.942, P = 0.003) and shorter duration of diabetes (OR = 0.729, 95% CI 0.634-0.838, P? 0.001) within 6 monthsIt is more likely to achieve a blood glucose response to exenatide.In addition, patients with a family history of diabetes were more likely to be classified as non-responders (OR = 3.549, 95% CI 1.205-10.454, P = 0.022), but this trend is uncertain due to the wide range of confidence intervals.Further linear regression analysis found that patients with baseline HbA1c levels ≥7.4% and duration of diabetes ≤15.0 years had greater hypoglycemic effects when using exenatide compared with patients with baseline HbA1c levels <7.4% and duration ≥15.0 years.Limitations of the study First, the sample size of the included patients is relatively small, and larger sample studies will be needed in the future to better determine the predictors of the exenatide hypoglycemic response; second, the lifestyle changes of participants during the follow-up are not trackedTherefore, the impact of lifestyle changes on weight and blood glucose control cannot be ruled out. Third, the majority of participants included were treated in endocrinology clinics, which may bias results because these patients may be more likely than in primary carePatients treated at the institution are associated with more comorbidities; Finally, although studies have documented and evaluated concurrent use of exenatide, exenatide alone may be better for newly diagnosed T2DM patientsAvoid confounding effects of drugs on HbA1c or weight changes.Summary of this article. In this study involving the Chinese T2DM population, researchers investigated potential predictors of glycemic response to exenatide in T2DM patients.The data show that baseline HbA1c levels and duration of diabetes are the main predictors of treatment effect. Patients with higher baseline HbA1c levels (≥7.4%) and shorter duration of diabetes (≤15.0 years) are better at using exenatideThe hypoglycemic effect (HbA1c reduced by ≥1% after 6 months of administration, or HbA1c <7% achieved).Researchers believe that these parameters can be used as predictors of exenatide's hypoglycemic effect, help clinicians to determine which patients will benefit better from exenatide treatment, and also provide further information on the precise treatment of T2DM.Prospective research has laid the foundation.The above content is only authorized by 39Health.com for exclusive use. Please do not reprint it without authorization from the copyright owner.

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DIABETES

Always wake up in the middle of the night, beware of the precursor to diabetes!

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Was hungry every night at night?Don’t think that it is a good appetite and strong digestive ability. If you are also accompanied by symptoms such as hand tremor and palpitation, beware of the precursor of diabetes, it is best to conduct blood glucose screening as soon as possible!Waking up in the middle of the night, beware of the precursor to diabetes. Diabetics always wake up in the middle of the night because of abnormalities in their pancreas function.In general, a small peak of insulin secretion occurs after 15 minutes of eating in ordinary people, and it will reach the highest peak in 1 hour; while the peak of insulin secretion in diabetic patients will be delayed, and untimely insulin secretion will lower patients’ blood glucose, Resulting in hunger.For this phenomenon, it is recommended that diabetic patients can make adjustments in their diet, try to avoid eating deep-processed food at dinner, and eat foods with high fiber content and protein content.However, if you have n’t eaten or you ’re on a diet before bedtime, waking up at midnight just means you ’re hungry. At this time, the stomach will remind you to add energy, and it does n’t tell you anything.What are the symptoms of diabetes?So, besides being prone to hunger, what other symptoms will there be before the onset of diabetes?1. If people with polyuria and diabetes continue to increase blood glucose, the glucose filtered out by the glomeruli cannot be completely absorbed by the renal tubules, and osmotic diuresis will be formed, leading to an increase in urine output.2. Drinking high blood sugar will increase the plasma osmotic pressure, and the symptoms of polyuria will easily lead to excessive water loss in the body, which will lead to dehydration and thirst.3. The relative lack of insulin or insulin resistance in diabetic patients may cause the body to be unable to use glucose to generate heat, which will cause excessive consumption of fat and protein, which will slowly lead to weight loss.4, vision loss Many diabetic patients will have vision loss and blurred vision in the early stage. This is mainly because hyperglycemia can cause changes in the osmotic pressure of the lens and cause changes in refractive power.

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