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DIABETES

Exercise can be thin, but everyone still prefers to be a quiet fat man

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1 Know that kinetic energy is thin, but people just don’t exercise!Do you want to lose weight?miss you!Then hurry up?Do not move!Many people feel that they are fat, but they are not willing to exercise. As a result, they are going further and further on the road of a quiet fat man… This is not your illusion!Recent research from the United States has found that people are indeed “speaking straight” in the matter of getting fat, while saying that they don’t want to be fat, they are getting fatter.However, even if you always feel that you are fat, people will not go to exercise.Unfortunately, the study also shows that only those who exercise can slim down!The study from JAMA Netw Open included data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 1999-2016, involving a total of 48,000 participants in 9 surveys, of which 50.5% were women and 41.2% were 40-64 years old.The results showed that during the period 1999-2016, the number of people trying to lose weight in the United States increased from 34.3% to 42.2%.People often use diets to reduce their dietary intake, exercise, and drink plenty of water; people eat more fruits, vegetables, and salads, and they try to avoid sweets and sweets and change their eating habits.However, contrary to expectations, the American BMI has not only decreased with various attempts, but has also increased year by year, but it is really afraid of what comes!However, the research published in Obesity still points you to the road – want to be thin, or to exercise more!Research indicates that current exercise guidelines suggest that people combine aerobic exercise and muscle exercise to prevent obesity.The study included data from four public health surveys during the period 2011-2017. After analyzing the exercise and BMI information of more than 1.67 million people, it found that it met the weekly aerobic exercise time of more than 150 minutes and the US week 2 or more muscle exercise.The risk of obesity in the population is low.If you can exercise, grade 1 or above obesity (APR 0.54, 95% CI 0.53-0.54), grade 2 or above obesity (0.32, 0.31-0.33), and grade 3 or above obesity (0.21, 0.20-0.21) willSignificantly lower.Heavenly rewards, fat is the fatter you move!Although everyone wants to be thin, but those who are really slimming are those who are active, and others are getting fatter.Losing weight is not as simple as saying it can be slim down. It is necessary to consistently exercise enough and control the diet. After years of hard work, the weight scale pointer can be changed.2 These three actions hurt, you may have a broken vertebral body!Osteoporosis has become a common disease in the aging Chinese society. Do older people with low back pain need to do a magnetic resonance to rule out the fracture?I was afraid of over-examination, and I was afraid of missing the diagnosis. It was really difficult to decide.A recent study from the Daping Hospital in Chongqing, China, developed a three-action back pain induction test (BPIT) to predict the likelihood of a patient’s vertebral fracture by physical examination and to guide subsequent examinations.The BPIT examination developed in this study includes three actions of supine, turning over and getting up. If the patient is positive in any of the actions, it means that the patient has the possibility of vertebral fracture and should be further examined. At the same time,In patients with pain, the researchers also asked patients to quantify their pain severity using a self-reported numerical rating scale (NRS).The study prospectively included 510 patients with osteoporosis risk and back pain, and analyzed the relationship between this test positive and magnetic resonance detected vertebral fractures.The results showed that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of this test were 99.1%, 67.9% and 89.0%, respectively; the positive and negative predictive values ​​were 86.6% and 97.4%, respectively.If the patient has pain during these three actions, then there is a 86.6% probability that a magnetic resonance will reveal the presence of a vertebral fracture; and if the three actions are completed, the patient is like a okay person, then there is97.4% likelihood that the patient is really okay.If the pain severity of the three movements of supine, turning over and getting up is more than 3 points, 0 points or 2 points, the corresponding diagnostic accuracy for vertebral fractures is also good, and the corresponding area (AUC) under the working characteristic curve can reach 0.898 respectively., 0.884 and 0.910.The researchers pointed out that this simple and easy examination can be used for stratification of patients with back pain at risk of osteoporosis.Negatives can avoid unnecessary magnetic resonance examinations, saving time and medical expenses; while positive ones should undergo magnetic resonance examination to confirm the presence of vertebral fractures and guide the next treatment and treatment.3 Chinese diabetes, genetic mutations are worth noting!A small proportion of people with diabetes are single-gene diabetics, but these patients are often misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes.About 1% of people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in the European population actually have monogenic diabetes, while in Asia there are fewer people with type 1 diabetes, so the proportion of people who are misdiagnosed may be higher.Recent studies have found that the proportion of single-gene diabetic patients who are misdiagnosed in Chinese patients with type 1 diabetes may be six times that of Europeans!The study analyzed 82 Han patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. These patients were sequenced in exomes to find genes associated with monogenic diabetes.Although these patients were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in the clinic, all three autoantibodies were negative.The researchers validated the patient’s disease-causing mutations in five ways to ensure that the results were true and reliable..
It was found that 18 of the 82 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes had mutations confirmed by five methods, and all of the mutations were pathogenic.The most common of these mutations is the HNF1A mutation associated with maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY3) in young people, accounting for 6/18 cases.Another WFS1 mutation associated with Wolfram syndrome is the same.The researchers pointed out that because the negative rate of Chinese autoantibodies is 27.4%, and the mutation rate is 22%, it is estimated that about 6% of patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in clinical practice are actually single-gene diabetic patients.The researchers believe that patients with type 1 diabetes who are negative for autoantibodies in diabetes should be genetically sequenced to rule out the possibility of monogenic diabetes.Many of these patients may only require sulfonylurea or GLP-1 agonist treatment without the need for insulin injection; patients with GCK mutations may only need lifestyle intervention.The study also pointed out that diabetic patients with WFS1 mutations are not uncommon in China and should be given better and more appropriate treatment. , please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright owner.

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Five details are not noticed, blood glucose measurement is difficult to be accurate!

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The blood glucose meter is a kind of medical instrument used to monitor the blood sugar level in the human body in real time. It is of course an essential instrument for the sugar friends.Medical technology promotes the replacement of various medical devices. The same is true for blood glucose meters. After continuous improvement, the blood sugar level has become closer and closer to accuracy and the error is getting smaller and smaller.What is the error range of the blood glucose meter?What are the errors in the blood glucose meter?Let’s take a look at it in detail!What is the error range of the blood glucose meter?According to the national regulations, the error range measured by the blood glucose meter can not exceed 20%, but now many blood glucose meter errors have been reduced a lot, which is very important for measuring blood sugar.What are the errors in the blood glucose meter?(1) The code is inconsistent.The code displayed on the meter should be adjusted to match the code of the strip before testing.(2) The test strip expires or is not properly stored.Do not use expired test strips to avoid affecting the test results. Generally, the instrument will automatically prompt the test strips to expire.There are also many detection errors caused by the deterioration of the test strip.Avoid moisture.(3) The operation is not correct.Improper operation can result in detection failure or inaccuracy.The meter should be placed in a stable and safe place for use.(4) Improper blood collection.If we do not use a sufficient amount of blood in the process of using the blood glucose meter, there may be a result of failure of detection or low result. In this case, do not perfuse things. Be sure to replace the test strip immediately and measure again until the measurement result.It is accurate.Most blood glucose meters in the market cannot collect blood from many parts, and generally use fingertip blood.(5) Not clean.Testing blood sugar is often contaminated by the environment, especially when the blood is contaminated by the test area of ​​the instrument during testing, which will affect the test results.Therefore, it is very important to be cautious in the daily use of the blood glucose meter.The above is about the content of the error range of the blood glucose meter. It is obvious that although the development of medical equipment level has progressed, the error range of the blood glucose meter has become smaller and smaller, and it is hoped that friends in need can purchase large brands with quality clearance.

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DIABETES

Fasting blood sugar control is not ideal?

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With the continuous improvement of people’s living standards, there are more and more people suffering from diabetes. At present, medical technology is not enough to cure diabetes. It can only be controlled. Some diabetic patients find that their fasting blood glucose levels are always high, so they want to know.What is the high fasting blood sugar?Here are some reasons for you.What is the high rate of fasting blood sugar in diabetic patients?Reasons for high fasting blood glucose in diabetic patients: 1. The dosage is not high enough. The first thing that comes to mind is that the blood sugar control is not ideal, and the blood sugar control is not ideal.Different types of diabetes are treated differently, but they all boil down to the reason for controlling the lack of blood sugar.Therefore, patients with high fasting blood glucose may be the cause of hypoglycemic drugs or low doses of insulin.2, Su Mujie reaction Su Mujie reaction is the case of diabetic patients with low blood sugar and then elevated blood sugar.It occurs mostly in diabetic patients who receive insulin as a treatment.There are many reasons for Su Muge’s reaction, largely because of too much insulin injection and no food or meals before going to bed.Su Mujie’s reaction is a stress response in the body. When the blood sugar is too low, the body will unconsciously secrete a large amount of glycosaminoglycans, which will lead to a particularly low fasting in the morning.3, dawn phenomenon Dawn phenomenon is a very stable blood sugar when diabetics sleep at night, blood sugar will rise rapidly in the morning.Although the dawn phenomenon is the same as Su Mujie’s reaction, the fasting blood sugar is high, but there is a difference.Su Mujie’s reaction is that in the early hours of the morning, the blood sugar will be very low, and then from low to high.The phenomenon of dawn is that the blood sugar is very stable at night and then becomes higher.The dawn phenomenon is different from the treatment method of Su Mujie’s reaction, paying attention to distinguishing and distinguishing.What is the high rate of fasting blood sugar in diabetic patients?It can be seen that there are three main reasons for the high fasting blood glucose level in diabetic patients, namely, insufficient dose, Su Mujie reaction and dawn phenomenon. You can see what causes you, and then deal with it in time to lower the fasting blood glucose level..

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Meta analysis: Can metformin prevent gestational diabetes?

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About 12%-18% of high-risk pregnant women worldwide are affected by GDM, and this number is likely to increase as obesity becomes more serious.High-risk factors for GDM include overweight/obesity, maternal age, family history of diabetes, previous GDM history, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), multiple pregnancies, and preterm birth history.Due to the complexity of the mechanisms that lead to GDM, there are currently no effective preventive measures.In the treatment of gestational diabetes, insulin is the first choice, but the relevant guidelines in China mention that the safety and efficacy of oral hypoglycemic drugs metformin and glibenclamide in GDM women are continuously confirmed, although the indications of these two drugsNone of these patients were covered, but considering the use of insulin for older women who refused to use insulin, the potential risks of these two drugs were much smaller than those of other oral hypoglycemic agents, and some GDM patients could be used with caution.Can metformin prevent GDM?Previous studies have concluded that metformin is a commonly used treatment for T2DM, and studies have shown that it can also improve the ovulation status of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.Previously, a number of randomized controlled or observational studies evaluated the relationship between metformin and GDM prevention in high-risk populations, but the conclusions were inconsistent.To find out, the meta-analysis was conducted by a team of endocrinologists and clinical epidemiologists from the University of Qatar to reveal the true relationship between metformin and GDM prevention.The researchers used PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO website, PsycINFO, and opengry.eu to search for relevant literature published in a randomized controlled study published in 1966-2019, with a high risk of gestational diabetes.The standard is for women with PCOS, obesity or insulin resistance.After screening, the researchers finally included 11 of the 1,270 related studies for meta-analysis.One of the 11 studies was from Asia (Bangladesh), 2 from South America (Chile and Brazil), 6 from Europe (Norway, UK and the Netherlands), and 1 from the Middle East (Iran), including 2370Participants, the incidence of GDM in different studies ranged from 11% to 70%.Meta-analysis results: Metformin did not bring surprise interventions and controls: In 11 randomized controlled trials, 2 study intervention groups used metformin before pregnancy until production, and the control group stopped at 8 weeks or 6-12 weeks of pregnancy.Metformin was used; metformin was used in 3 study intervention groups starting from weeks 6-12 of pregnancy; in the remaining 6 studies, metformin was started in the intervention group at 6-20 weeks of gestation, with 2In contrast, another 4 studies were given a placebo control.Overall, 1,170 of the 2,370 participants included metformin during the entire pregnancy and 1,200 did not receive metformin.The total number of people with GDM events in the intervention group was 235, and the control group was 242.The results showed that there was no significant difference in GDM risk between participants receiving metformin throughout the pregnancy (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.85-1.24).Subgroups of GDM incidence (>20%, ≤20%), metformin use start time (from the beginning of pregnancy, from the 6th to 20th week), high-risk participant type (PCOS, obesity, insulin resistance)Analysis did not yield any meaningful positive results.The sensitivity analysis of 11 studies included in this meta-analysis was good and the heterogeneity was good (I^2 was only 20.2%).
In this review, all relevant studies published in 1966 to March 2019 were screened. This meta-analysis included 11 high-quality randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of metformin in the prevention of gestational diabetes in high-risk women.Studies have shown that even during the entire pregnancy, metformin does not reduce the incidence of gestational diabetes in high-risk women.And considering the data quality and heterogeneity of the included studies, the researchers believe that the results of this study can basically be conclusive, and no further research is necessary. , please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright owner.

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Use hypoglycemic drugs, do not consider the patient’s weight problem

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The comprehensive control goals of patients with type 2 diabetes include not only blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipids, but also the management of the body mass index (BMI). BMI should be controlled below 24.0kg/m^2 because overweight and obesity are not onlyIt is a risk factor for diabetes and can also affect blood glucose levels.Weight and diet management For overweight and obese diabetic patients, weight management is required, and dietary nutrition intervention is one of the important means.Control total daily energy intake in medical nutrition therapy, strive to reduce body weight by 5%-10% in 3-6 months, and for patients with wasting need to recover through a reasonable nutrition plan and maintain ideal body weight for a long time.In addition to dietary factors, hypoglycemic agents and weight gain should also strengthen exercise, and the daily use of hypoglycemic drugs in diabetic patients also has a certain impact on body weight.One of the most noteworthy is insulin.Insulin: the most direct hypoglycemic agent, however, there are certain adverse reactions in use. In the course of insulin treatment, it is necessary to guard against the occurrence of hypoglycemia, which may be caused by excessive dose or mismatch between insulin dose and staple food intake..Clinically, the hypoglycemia response to insulin is emphasized more and there are corresponding countermeasures.For patients who use insulin, you also need to pay attention to the problem of weight gain.After a period of insulin treatment, patients often have weight gain.This is because insulin not only promotes the absorption of glucose, but also promotes the synthesis of fat and protein. Moreover, since blood sugar is effectively controlled, nutrient absorption is also improved, which easily leads to weight gain and even obesity.Other patients, because they are worried about hypoglycemia, will deliberately add food and supplement food, resulting in excessive energy intake and weight gain.Even some patients do not pay much attention to the scientific diet. If you eat more each meal, you will increase your insulin dosage and cause weight gain.Insulin-promoting agents: from the mechanism of action of oral hypoglycemic agents, can be divided into insulin-promoting agents and other mechanisms of action, the former mainly through the promotion of insulin secretion to play a hypoglycemic effect, mainly sulfonylureasLine, a DPP-4 inhibitor, in which sulfonylureas and glinides have an effect on body weight.The effect of DPP-4 inhibitors on body weight is neutral or increased.Other hypoglycemic drugs: these drugs are biguanides, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), a-glycosidase inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, SGLT-2 inhibitors, of which TZDs mainly increase targets.The sensitivity of cells to insulin action lowers blood sugar. Common side effects include weight gain and edema. Therefore, for diabetic patients who are overweight, try to avoid such weight-lowering drugs.For patients who use insulin, we must educate patients to prevent hypoglycemia, and also tell patients regular diet and exercise. It is not advisable to increase the intake of snacks at will. The increase in body weight will lead to insulin resistance, weaken the efficacy of drugs, and eventually lead to poor blood sugar control.Hypoglycemic agents and weight loss In addition to weight-reducing hypoglycemic agents, there is also a class of hypoglycemic agents that may significantly reduce body weight, and even have a place in weight-loss drugs, while reducing weight while improving weight, overweight and obesity.For diabetics, it is a good choice.Metformin: This long-established hypoglycemic drug is not only effective in reducing blood sugar but also reducing body weight, which is mainly related to its mechanism of action to improve peripheral insulin resistance.However, the efficacy of metformin has nothing to do with body weight, but it can also be used in patients with low body weight, but it needs to be adjusted through diet to improve nutritional status.GLP-1 receptor agonist: This drug acts to lower blood sugar by stimulating the GLP-1 receptor, and exenatide and liraglutide are representative of such drugs, all of which require subcutaneous injection.GLP-1 receptor agonists enhance insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, inhibit glucagon secretion, delay gastric emptying, and reduce food intake through central appetite suppression, so the drug is hypoglycemic.Can significantly reduce weight.In addition, the drug is often treated with gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, etc.), which also reduces food intake and weight loss.
SGLT-2 inhibitor: The substance responsible for sugar absorption in the renal tubule is called “sodium-glucose cotransporter 2”, abbreviated as SGLT-2.SGLT-2 is mainly distributed in the S1 segment of the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney. It is a low-affinity, high-transporting transporter whose main physiological function is to complete the reabsorption of 90% glucose in glomerular filtrate.By inhibiting SGLT-2, SGLT-2 inhibitors reduce the absorption of glucose by the renal tubules, and a large amount of sugar is excreted from the urine, thereby achieving the purpose of lowering blood sugar.This drug also has a significant effect on reducing body weight.GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors in the new hypoglycemic agents can significantly reduce the body weight of the patients, and also improve the visceral fat. , please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright owner.

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If you want to control your sugar, you still need to sleep well!

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It’s not good to sleep now, maybe you’re a member of diabetes for decades.This is not a threat to you. A recent study published in the Journalof Diabetes explored the relationship between inefficient sleep and the risk of type 2 diabetes.Low sleep efficiency, risk of diabetes or higher This study analyzed sleep-related data for 4,737 adults and their diabetes status. Sleep efficiency was expressed as the ratio of actual sleep time to bed time.Studies have found that the proportion of people with diabetes is higher in people with sleep-disordered breathing, but lower sleep efficiency has no significant effect on the risk of diabetes.In people without sleep-disordered breathing, people with a sleep efficiency of less than 80% have a higher risk of developing diabetes.What is the relationship between sleep and diabetes?The relationship between sleep efficiency and diabetes risk needs to be further explored.But the researchers said that with sleep-disordered breathing and low sleep efficiency, they are more prone to poor sleep quality, which may change leptin levels, which in turn affects eating behavior, ability to consume, and glucose regulation.In addition, low sleep efficiency may lead to problems such as decreased diabetes and decreased insulin sensitivity.So for patients with type 2 diabetes, what is the impact of poor sleep quality?Insufficient sleep has been identified as an important factor in poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Poor sleep quality can lead to abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Improving sleep quality can improve the glycemic control effect in patients with type 2 diabetes.Diabetes patients need to improve their sleep quality through lifestyle interventions, including relieving personal stress, choosing a dark and quiet sleeping environment, adjusting the appropriate ambient temperature, adjusting the regular sleep cycle, choosing a light diet for dinner, and not using electronic devices before going to bed.and many more.In addition, diabetic patients are prone to sleep apnea and require special interventions, such as continuous positive pressure ventilation to improve the problem and improve sleep quality.

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Can diabetics not eat fruit?

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After many people suffer from diabetes, the first reaction is that they can no longer eat sugar, including delicious fruit.They think that the fruit is sweet, and the blood sugar is easy to rise after eating, which causes the diabetes to worsen.Is this concept wrong?Let’s have a chat today.Can diabetics not eat fruit?This does not necessarily mean that many fruits contain a certain amount of sugar, but this does not mean that diabetic patients cannot eat fruit.The fruit itself also contains vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, antioxidants, etc., which are good for human health.In addition, fruit contains sugar mainly divided into three categories: glucose, fructose and sucrose, in which fructose metabolism does not require the participation of insulin.Diabetic patients can eat some fruits properly under the premise of stable disease.Stable diabetes refers to: fasting blood glucose <7.0mmol / L, postprandial blood glucose <10.0mmol / L, glycated hemoglobin <7.5% Speaking of this, we should know that diabetic patients can eat some fruits properly.However, diabetics have four precautions for eating fruit.Suffering from diabetes, eating fruits should pay attention to the intake of the right amount of fruit to help diabetic patients to satisfy their appetite, and to help supplement the necessary substances for the body.However, eating too much fruit can cause excessive absorption of sugar and cause blood sugar to rise.I want to eat fruit, but I don't want blood sugar to rise too high.1 Do not eat too many diabetics to eat fruit, be sure to control the amount.2 Do not eat on an empty stomach or after a meal. It is recommended to eat fruit between meals or before going to bed, such as 10 am, 3 pm, 9 pm.Eating fruit at this time can prevent hypoglycemia and prevent excessive fluctuations in blood sugar.3 Specific analysis of the specific situation As mentioned above, it is also mentioned that under the stable control of the disease, the right amount of fruit is eaten, and the condition is stable.When blood sugar is not well controlled, it is recommended to eat less or not.4 Eat fruits with less sugar and try to eat fruits with less sugar, such as pears, cucumbers, kiwis, lemons, plums, strawberries, alfalfa, watermelons, etc.

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UN Diabetes Day: Prevent and control diabetes, from small families to everyone!

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Introduction: Diabetes is a silent killer. When blood sugar rises, there are often no obvious symptoms. Long-term high blood sugar causes multiple harms to the body, and it is life-threatening in severe cases.Diabetes is a disease that is high in the world today. According to the latest data released by the International Diabetes Federation, the number of diabetic patients worldwide has reached 425 million in 2017. It is estimated that by 2045, diabetes patients may reach 629 million.The number of diabetic patients in China is about 114.4 million, which has become the country with the largest number of patients. Among them, there are many undiagnosed diabetes. If they do not interfere in time for development, the consequences are very serious.Faced with the grim situation of prevention and control of diabetes in China, on the occasion of the United Nations Diabetes Day (November 14), Xiaobian came to talk about diabetes prevention and control.The theme of the United Nations Diabetes Day in 2019 is “Preventing diabetes to protect your family.”The family is the main platform for building an active and healthy lifestyle and the main battlefield for preventing type 2 diabetes, playing a vital role in the early detection and management of diabetes.The strong support of the family can greatly help diabetic patients improve their mental health and quality of life.More than half of type 2 diabetes can be prevented. Good diabetes management can reduce related complications and improve patients’ quality of life and survival. However, more than half of diabetes patients currently lack diabetes education, and less than a quarterThe family members of the diabetic patients have received relevant training.Therefore, the widespread popularity of diabetes knowledge cannot be delayed.Regular screening for diabetes prevention and treatment of diabetes should be early, early detection, early intervention and early treatment, but most diabetic patients do not have typical symptoms of more than three (less drink, more food, more urine and weight loss), often only mildSymptoms of fatigue and thirst, in addition, refractory skin itching, repeated oral ulcers, slow wound healing, poor pregnancy history and blurred vision may also be related to abnormal blood sugar, which needs to be taken seriously.High-risk groups: overweight or obesity, family history of diabetes, family history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, history of gestational diabetes, cardiovascular disease, sedentary lifestyle, metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease andPeople with polycystic ovary syndrome are at high risk of diabetes. They need to be screened for diabetes every year. When the fasting blood glucose level is ≥5.6mmol/L, further examination is needed. OGTT (drinking sugar) test is needed to see if the postprandial blood glucose exceeds the standard.Exclude diabetes.Diabetes spouses: Studies have shown that not only is family history of diabetes increasing the risk of diabetes, but even the risk of diabetes in spouses of diabetic patients increases. Therefore, these groups should also be screened regularly.From the perspective of diabetes prevention, we should start with the family and promote lifestyle interventions. Let’s talk about lifestyle interventions for diabetics.Family food for the people to eat for the day, prevent diabetes can start from three meals a day!A light, salt-free, and oil-free diet is good for your health. It is also a powerful measure to prevent chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Cooking at home helps to practice such dietary principles.In addition, eating at home can effectively control the amount of food consumed, and can also be reasonably matched with a variety of foods to achieve food diversity.Diet weight loss: Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases. For people who are overweight and obese, weight loss is the number one priority in preventing diabetes.We need to reduce the choice and intake of high-energy foods, such as creamy foods, fried foods, pastries, sugary drinks, etc., especially to control the intake of fats and sugars, and to control the fine white rice and meat.To ensure that the intake of vegetables, fruits and milk is sufficient to reduce fat and weight loss.A reduction of 300-500 kcal energy intake per day, a weekly weight loss of about 1 kg is a suitable weight loss rate.Diabetes diet: Reasonable diet is very important for blood sugar control in diabetic patients. As a diabetic family, it is necessary to understand the relevant knowledge and provide a scientific diabetes diet. This kind of meal can be enjoyed by the whole family and is also beneficial for preventing diabetes.For diabetic patients, the staple food should be quantitative, on-demand intake, it is recommended to mix the thickness, so that the whole grain, miscellaneous beans account for one-third of the food, the coarse grain sugar is slow, which is helpful for improving postprandial blood sugar.In addition, diabetic patients should eat more vegetables, supplement the amount of fruit in moderation, and the variety and color should be varied.In meat foods, fish and poultry are often eaten, eggs and meat are ingested in moderation, and processed meat should be limited.Meal details: At home, you can use a meal-sharing system to distribute food according to the actual needs of each person, avoiding more food or unreasonable food structure.When eating, you should chew slowly, it is recommended to adjust the order of eating, to develop the habit of eating vegetables first, and finally eating staple food.Studies have shown that changing the order of eating, eating vegetables first and then eating staple foods, or eating the main food in order of eating the leeks first, the post-meal blood sugar, insulin levels are significantly reduced, the effect of sugar control is obvious.A healthy lifestyle, a static lifestyle is also a big push for diabetes. Many young people sit or lie down for a long time besides sleeping. This is called “sitting,” which consumes very little energy.It can accumulate body fat and increase the risk of many diseases, including diabetes.Say to Sedentary 88: We should reasonably arrange time outside of work, such as the whole family to mobilize together to do hygiene, go out for a walk, go to the park or do other sports, instead of sitting watching TV and eating snacks.Walking fast is the simplest and best physical activity. We recommend that adults take an active physical activity of 6,000 steps per day. After a period of time, they will significantly improve their health.For diabetics, there should be moderate-intensity physical activity for at least half an hour per day and more than 150 minutes per week.In addition, diabetics can also perform some resistance training, such as dumbbells, elastic bands, sandbags, etc. These exercises can increase lean body mass, strengthen bones and joints and muscles, and prevent cardiovascular disease.Guaranteed sleep time: Nearly one-third of a person’s life spends in sleep, so sleep health is also important.Insufficient sleep can increase the body’s insulin resistance, decrease the islet β-cell reactivity, and increase blood sugar.Therefore, we should sleep regularly and avoid staying up late. The family members of diabetic patients should try to arrange a good living environment to ensure a good sleep for their families.Going out and taking the car: Nowadays, the transportation is also very convenient. When you go out and take the car, you can go upstairs and take the elevator. You can walk almost without walking. However, these conveniences reduce the time for our physical activities.It is recommended that you reduce the number of driving trips when conditions permit, and you can change your bicycle or other means to increase the amount of activity.There is a long way to go to prevent and treat chronic diseases.
In 2016, China’s chronic disease and its risk factors monitoring report pointed out that China’s diabetes awareness rate, treatment rate, and control rate were 38.6%, 35.6%, and 33.0%, respectively, and rural areas were significantly lower than urban areas.Chronic complications of diabetes are the main causes of death and disability, including 60% of cardiovascular diseases, 60% of amputations, 40%-50% of blindness, and 30% of renal failure. WHO pointed out that 2005-2015, ChinaThe economic losses caused by diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases amounted to 557.7 billion US dollars, 80% of which were used for the treatment of complications. In 2017, the number of diabetic patients aged 20-79 was ranked in the top ten national medical expenses, and China was second only to the United States.Second.For the prevention and treatment of diabetes, we have a very important responsibility. In addition to the aforementioned “small family”, diabetes prevention and “everyone” efforts, the State Council Office has formulated the “China Medium and Long-term Plan for Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases (2017-2025)Year), the corresponding planning for the number of management and standard management rate of diabetes patients in the community. In 2018, the National Grassroots Diabetes Prevention and Control Office announced the “Guidelines for the Management of National Basic Diabetes Prevention and Control”, 2019 “Basic Type 2 Diabetes Screening Experts”The Consensus is also released, which means that there is a corresponding scientific guidance from the screening of the grassroots to the management of diabetes. The prevention and treatment of diabetes is actively carried out from “small family” to “everyone”.The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases has a long way to go. The prevention and treatment of diabetes is a long-term cause. It requires the participation of all the people. In addition to “everyone” and “small family”, let us do something for the prevention and control of diabetes, fight diabetes and help healthy China.I need you and me to build together. , please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright owner.

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One person dies of diabetes every 8 seconds!

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01 World Diabetes Day: Protect your family and guard against diabetes!Since 1991, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have co-sponsored the World Diabetes Day (WDD) event on November 14th each year.At the same time, this day was also the birth of Canadian physiologist and physician Frederick Banting. He discovered insulin together with Charles Best in 1922, completely changing the clinical treatment of diabetes, and thus obtained 1923Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.The 83rd plenary meeting of the United Nations on December 20, 2006 formally adopted Resolution A/RES/61/225 [1], and upgraded World Diabetes Day to United Nations Diabetes Day. Since 2007, it has organized corresponding activities every year.It aims to arouse the attention of governments and all sectors of society on diabetes.November 14th, 2019 is the 13th World Diabetes Day. This year’s theme is “Protect your family” [2].Knowing ourselves and knowing each other, you can win every battle. If you want to protect your family, you must first become familiar with diabetes.IDF summed up the “important information” about diabetes. Before we declare war on diabetes, let us first understand our “enemies”!In addition to these key information, this year’s World Diabetes Day released a new ninth edition of the 2019 International Diabetes Federation’s Global Diabetes Overview [3], let us take a sneak peek!Compared with the eighth edition of the 2017 Global Diabetes Survey [4], it can be found that the trend of diabetes has not been curbed, but it has become more and more powerful!As the world’s number one populous country, China has taken the top spot in the ninth edition of the “Global Diabetes Overview”, with a huge advantage of 116 million people, the second India’s 77 million people and the thirdThe name of 31 million people is behind.The title of this champion that can’t be thrown away will remain at least until 2045, when the number of diabetic patients in China is expected to reach 147.2 million.China is also the country with the largest number of elderly people with diabetes. At present, the number of diabetic patients over 65 years old in China has reached 35.5 million. It is expected to increase to 54.3 million by 2030, and it is likely to grow to 78.1 million by 2045.The position of one can not come down.Unsurprisingly, the number of undiagnosed diabetes in China is also a “stable victory.”Of the estimated 116 million people with diabetes, 65.2 million were not diagnosed, accounting for 56.0% of all diabetes in China.The only thing that is gratifying is that China has finally lost in type 1 diabetes.The incidence of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents aged 0-14 was fourth in the case of 4.8 cases/1000 person-years, and the second place was 28.7 cases/1000 people.China’s impaired glucose tolerance is relatively optimistic, with a prevalence of less than 6%, giving people a sigh of relief.People with diabetes in China are relatively lucky. They are not likely to die young. They died of diabetes before the age of 60, but people with diabetes in Africa are worse. Half of the patients may not be 60 years old.However, we can’t take it lightly.Although China has the largest number of people with diabetes, it seems that the money spent on people with diabetes is not enough.The first place in the United States spends an astonishing $294 billion on diabetes every year, which is almost equivalent to the sum of 2-9.In China, the number of people with diabetes is four times that of the United States, but the amount of money spent on diabetes is only one-third of that in the United States. The cost of diabetes per capita is naturally not ranked.It’s easy to understand a bunch of data, but the ultimate goal is to prevent diabetes!For type 1 diabetes, there is no safe and effective preventive measure. It is impossible to cure type 1 diabetes, but it has become possible to delay its development.Most people with type 2 diabetes are in low- and middle-income countries. For type 2 diabetes, the whole society needs to take action and take comprehensive preventive measures.These measures not only target type 2 diabetes, but also reduce the risk of other chronic non-communicable diseases.Understanding a bunch of data is of great importance, and sufficient evidence is a prerequisite for diversified diabetes management and care.A multidisciplinary, patient-centered and well-coordinated approach can improve the self-management of diabetic patients. Individualized care measures are more likely to allow patients to achieve treatment goals, reduce diabetes-related hospitalization and adverse clinical outcomes, and improve patient quality of life.03 Diabetes Quiz: Eight questions to understand the risk of diabetes!Having said that, the data looks very powerful, but what does it have to do with me?Maybe I will not be one of the more than 100 million Chinese diabetics?IDF has long known that everyone will be afraid that they will not have diabetes, so they simply launched an online test [5] to see if you can easily get diabetes!In fact, according to IDF estimates, as many as 212 million people with diabetes worldwide are not diagnosed, which is equivalent to half of all adult diabetes patients, most of whom have type 2 diabetes.The first step in preventing type 2 diabetes is to know your diabetes risk.IDF hopes that 1 million people will receive their diabetes risk test by the end of November, thereby raising awareness of diabetes prevention and treatment, and even finding more latent diabetics.Finally, do you still remember the theme of this World Diabetes Day?.
“Protect your family” – Don’t forget to recommend it to your family after you finish it! , please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright owner.

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DIABETES

About the top five rumors about diabetes, the first 80% of people are in the middle

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Proverb 1: Getting diabetes is because sugar eats more!Many people think that diabetes is caused by sugar. The sugar here is not only simple sugar such as white sugar, but also carbohydrates such as white rice noodles. Therefore, if you get diabetes, you should eat less or not eat staple food.This kind of understanding is wrong!Eating more sugar does not necessarily lead to diabetes. There is no direct connection between eating sugar and suffering from diabetes. In the occurrence and development of diabetes, dietary factors play an important role. However, multiple factors such as heredity and infection are related to the onset of diabetes.Can not be ignored.Dietary big data shows that nutrients closely related to the high incidence of diabetes in China are more likely to be “fat”.From the changes in the diet of Chinese people in recent decades, we can see that our staple food intake has not increased, but it has decreased, and with the improvement of material life, excessive intake of animal food, oil intakeThe amount is also significantly increased, and the oil intake exceeds the standard, which not only increases the obesity rate, but also increases the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Therefore, many people rely on eating less or not eating staple food to lose weight and control blood sugar is wrong.Proverb 2: Hypoglycemic agents for liver and kidney hypoglycemic agents are powerful weapons for the treatment of hyperglycemia, but before the medication, doctors will pay attention to the liver and kidney function of patients, and some drug instructions will also have the words “disabled for liver and kidney dysfunction”.Therefore, many patients think that it is a three-point drug, and that hypoglycemic drugs eat more liver and kidney, thus resisting the consumption of hypoglycemic drugs. This view is also wrong.First of all, many drugs need to be metabolized in the liver, and most of them are excreted from the kidneys by the original drug form or metabolites. When the kidney is insufficiency, the drug metabolism disorder may cause the drug to accumulate in the body, leading to adverse consequences, if the liver function is damaged,It is bound to be detrimental to drug metabolism, so in the case of liver and kidney dysfunction, the doctor will adjust the medication plan, use drugs that are not metabolized by the kidneys, or use insulin therapy.Secondly, some chronic complications of diabetes, such as the occurrence of diabetic nephropathy, are related to poor blood sugar, blood pressure, and poor control of blood lipids, and have little to do with the hypoglycemic drugs. Therefore, some patients refuse to eat because they are worried about the hypoglycemic agents.Medicine, or random reduction of the dose, is an undesirable practice, high blood sugar, long-term damage to blood vessels, and ultimately will lead to kidney disease.Proverbs 3: Insulin is addictive. Insulin is the only hormone that can lower blood sugar in the body. When the body itself cannot synthesize enough insulin to reduce blood sugar, we need to exogenously supplement insulin for hypoglycemic. Some diabetic patients who need insulin.It’s because of this view that it’s too late to use it.For diabetic patients who need exogenous insulin supplementation, insulin is like our daily nutritional needs. When the body supply is insufficient, the external supplement will be added. If the body lacks much, it will be added. Because we need food every day, we need insulin to let the blood sugar enter.Cells play their physiological functions, so they need to be given regular insulin, which has nothing to do with dependence and addiction.In addition, insulin does not necessarily mean that the condition is serious, and in some cases, insulin can be discontinued after a period of use.For example, type 2 diabetes is in a state of stress, and if there is a co-infection, insulin is needed. After the disease is improved, the previous treatment plan can be restored and the insulin can be withdrawn.There are also some newly diagnosed diabetic patients, because of the high glucose toxicity, early intensive insulin therapy can help to eliminate the toxicity of sugar, partially restore insulin function, insulin can be changed to oral medication after a period of time, even stopping the drug for a period of time, regular monitoring of blood glucoseYes, there is no insulin addiction.Proverbs 4: Diabetes patients can’t eat sweet diabetes, they can no longer eat sweets, including fruit.Many people with diabetes are convinced of this view and have since said goodbye to fruit.In fact, we have to dialectically divide the problem into two. For diabetic patients, it is necessary to control the intake of simple sugar in the daily diet, because such sugar can rapidly raise blood sugar, which is not conducive to disease control. Therefore, diabetic patientsDo not eat cakes, desserts, etc.However, when hypoglycemia occurs, diabetic patients need to replenish foods that can quickly glyceose and restore blood sugar to normal. At this time, simple sugar should be given, which can quickly relieve symptoms of hypoglycemia.For sweet foods such as fruits, diabetic patients can eat under the condition of stable blood sugar control. Fruit can also provide some antioxidant substances, which is beneficial to diabetic patients. When choosing, you should choose varieties with low glycemic index, such as apples.Pears, citrus fruits, and fruits with high sugar content such as lychee and banana have a great influence on blood sugar after consumption, and are not suitable for diabetic patients.In addition, it is precisely this misunderstanding that some diabetic patients trust “sugar-free pastries” and believe that sugar-free cakes can be eaten casually.In fact, sugar-free cakes only contain no added sugar such as sucrose. The main raw materials of such foods are still carbohydrates such as flour. Some cakes also use sweeteners to increase sweetness. Eating too much will have a significant effect on blood sugar..Proverbs 5: Diabetes patients can achieve high blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. Therefore, controlling blood sugar is the number one priority, but for the daily management of diabetic patients, if you only pay attention to blood sugar, it is definitely not acceptable.Because the prevention and control of diabetes is not about how much blood sugar falls, but to prevent the occurrence of diabetes-related chronic diseases.In addition to blood sugar, diabetic patients should also pay attention to their blood pressure, blood lipids and blood clots.Studies have shown that intensive blood pressure control can not only significantly reduce the occurrence of diabetic macroangiopathy, but also significantly reduce the risk of microvascular disease. In addition, it is closely related to diabetic microangiopathy and macrovascular disease.Diabetes patients have stricter lipid control goals than the general population. These are to better manage diabetes and reduce the incidence of chronic complications..
The goal of glycemic control in diabetic patients should not be uniform. It should be based on the actual situation of patients. For younger patients, patients with type 2 diabetes who have shorter course of disease, longer life expectancy, and no complications, have no cardiovascular disease.Blood sugar control can be more stringent.For patients with a history of severe hypoglycemia, a shorter life expectancy, significant microvascular or macrovascular complications, or patients with severe comorbidities can adopt relatively loose glycemic control goals.There are more than five rumors about diabetes. I hope that everyone can learn the correct knowledge of disease prevention and control, establish a correct diabetes management philosophy, scientific diet, strengthen exercise, regular medication, regular monitoring, control diabetes, and live healthy and longevity! , please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright owner.

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