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Three signs indicate that bowel cancer has reached the middle and late stage!

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“Hey!” The quiet atmosphere of the office was suddenly destroyed by a fart.”Pharaoh, it’s you again!” “Oh, I am really embarrassed. I have eaten too much sweet potato last night, and I can’t control it.” Pharaoh scratched his head, not too embarrassed.”Fart fart doesn’t matter, it means you are healthy, you can’t put out the fart, it’s dangerous.” I asked Jun to come up from the corner.Xiao Ai, I heard, “Hey, is there such a saying? Good question, you can tell everyone about it!” We all have seen similar situations more or less, sometimes we want to fart but always feel blocked.Not coming out.If you have a feeling of bulging in the anus, but there is no gas, then we must be vigilant about the health of the intestines.Niu Jianhai, the chief physician of the First Hospital of Baoding City, said that anal bulge is likely to be caused by rectal mucosal fall or ulcerative colorectal inflammation.”There is no fart can not be released” is likely to be “intestinal obstruction”, more serious, it will be a sign of colorectal cancer, so in the case of such a situation, patients should go to the hospital for colonoscopy and other examinations.Why is it that “there is no skin to put out?””There is no fart to put out”, and there is usually a problem with the intestines.Intestinal obstruction, as the name suggests, the intestines are not smooth, blocked, is the most common surgical emergency.When the intestines pass through the obstacle, the contents of the stomach will be trapped and accumulated in the intestines, causing the intestines to swell and develop lesions.Many middle-aged and elderly people, with age, digestive function, will cause intestinal obstruction.Acute intestinal obstruction is rapid and difficult to diagnose, especially for some older patients, with degraded cardiopulmonary function and dysfunction, resulting in more deaths in patients with intestinal obstruction.In many cases, intestinal infarction is caused by tumor growth in the intestinal lumen, resulting in a gradual decrease in intestinal space.However, due to the long growth period of the intestinal tumor, the early tumor does not immediately cause symptoms of the body’s disease. It usually takes one to two weeks to be found around the intestinal wall, so when the tumor occurs and causes intestinal infarction, the tumor is predicted.It has been growing for a while.At this time, the patient went to the hospital because he was uncomfortable, but he had already missed the best treatment opportunity.Therefore, elderly people with gastrointestinal dysfunction or poor digestive function need to pay attention to gastrointestinal health.There is flatulence in the abdomen, and the gas is not discharged smoothly. When the “fart is not released”, it is necessary to increase the vigilance against the tumor in the intestine.”Can there be a fart can not be released” will be colorectal cancer?”If you can’t put it out,” you should consider the problem of intestinal obstruction. Then, will intestinal obstruction develop into intestinal cancer?In fact, the cause of intestinal cancer is more complicated, and personal bad eating habits and eating habits are the main incentives, and also have a certain relationship with family genetic history.When suffering from intestinal cancer, the tumor in the intestine can cause intestinal patency, hinder intestinal activity, and intestinal obstruction.However, intestinal obstruction is not necessarily the cause of the tumor, and any problem that causes poor intestinal activity can be the cause of intestinal obstruction.Prevention of bowel cancer, starting from these small things Although the diagnosis of bowel cancer is more difficult, but when we have intestinal lesions, we can be vigilant as soon as possible, promptly seek medical treatment for the risk of bowel cancer.As intestinal cancer deteriorates, symptoms such as abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, and blood in the stool may occur.Therefore, when these symptoms appear, the public needs to have a sense of prevention, vigilance, and timely check medical treatment.At present, the main treatment for intestinal cancer is: laboratory examination, endoscopy, biopsy and exfoliative cytology.Laboratory tests can be used to effectively understand the patient’s intestinal condition through routine blood tests and blood tests.Endoscopy is more common. Colonoscopy can check the condition of the colon, which is more accurate than X-ray. The CEA method (blood tumor marker carcinoembryonic antigen) can effectively judge the tumor condition; it has the most early stage cancer and cancer.The significance of decisive diagnosis is biopsy.For the prevention of bowel cancer, Wu Weidong, deputy director of the First People’s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, gave several comments: First, we must pay attention to reducing the intake of high-fat and high-protein foods, increasing cellulosic foods; paying attention to intestinal health,Don’t shy your bowel movements, “put with your fart”; smoke and drink less to ensure sleep time and quality; and good habits and exercise will help improve your physical fitness.These measures are good for everyone to prevent bowel cancer.References: 1, “unexplained intestinal obstruction, the original small intestine tumor”. Health News. 2014-07-03.2, “different parts of colorectal cancer, what are their symptoms.” Life Times. 2017-10-27.3, “large intestineCan cancer be prevented?》. CCTV. 2018-04-03.

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Cancer screening does not need to be done by everyone. If these four types of people are needed, screening is necessary.

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Professor Wang Fangjun of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine said: “We should clarify the fact that the normal physical examination of a normal person is not the same as the examination of a patient who goes to the hospital to see a doctor!” He believes that the anti-cancer medical examination andThe general health check has different emphasis; the disease is checked, the target is clear, the target is strong, the accuracy and meticulousness, the relatively accurate diagnosis of the disease is “positioned, quantitative, qualitative and regular”; the ordinary health check is onlyA preliminary screening process does not know whether the body is sick or not, which is equivalent to “salting the net”. Therefore, it is usually only possible to select some items that reflect important organ functions and are simple and inexpensive.How to prevent cancer screening?With the gradual improvement of living standards, the health awareness of Chinese people is also constantly improving. Many young people give gifts to their elders, and they also choose to use “practical health”, especially the “anti-cancer health check” package of the recent fire.In general, anti-cancer physical examinations can be designed according to the age, gender, family history, medical history, etc. of each examinee.For example, the female physical examination package will include examination items for ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and breast cancer. If men have bad habits such as smoking and drinking, anti-cancer physical examinations will be designed for lung cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer.How to do cancer prevention checkup?First of all, three routine (blood, urine, stool routine) examinations are necessary. This physical examination item can often find the clues of cancer. The abnormal blood routine is often the first manifestation of malignant tumors of the blood system.Second, do it according to different inspection sites.For example, liver cancer screening for hepatitis B virus carriers should be performed once every six months.Gastric cancer: Men and women over the age of 40, once a year physical examination.Lung cancer: Men and women over the age of 40, once a year physical examination.Colorectal cancer: men and women over the age of 40, once a year physical examination.CT imaging examination, a physical examination every five years.Proctoscopy: Similar to colonoscopy, but only the rectum and part of the colon are examined and a physical examination is performed every five years.Cervical cancer: Women over the age of 20, once every 2 years.Breast cancer: Women over the age of 40, once every 2 years.Ordinary people do not need to do anti-cancer physical examination too early, no family history of malignant tumors, advanced age, bad habits and microbial infections, and other high-risk factors, it is not recommended to blindly do anti-cancer physical examination.Generally speaking, men who are 50 years old will consider screening for prostate cancer. If a 30-year-old male chooses this package, it is not suitable. Women who are 30 to 40 years old do not have a family history, past medical history, or clinical symptoms.The anti-cancer physical examination is not recommended to be the most advanced when it comes up. The Chinese have a blind trust in the “high price” inspection.Zhang Haiyan, director of the Center for Health and Cancer Risk Screening at the Chongqing Cancer Hospital, said that many people think that when PET scans the whole body with PET-CT, they can get out of the early tumors hidden in the body.As far as screening is concerned, PET-CT has a large amount of waste of medical resources, and is not a routine screening method for tumors.These types of people need to do anti-cancer physical examination 1. Family has a family history: parents, siblings and children have cancer patients, such as: immediate family members have breast cancer, cystic hyperplasia of the breast, familial colon polyposisFamily members, especially those who are very young when diagnosed with cancer, need to have an anti-cancer medical examination.2. Poor living habits: long-term smoking, alcohol abuse, high-fat, high-protein foods, staying up late, etc., need to do anti-cancer physical examination.3. People with certain diseases: patients with viral hepatitis and cirrhosis; people infected with Helicobacter pylori and HPV (human papillomavirus) need to have an anti-cancer medical examination.4. People of a certain age group: young people aged 40-50 years old, middle-aged and elderly people aged 50-70 years old, special women such as cervical cancer and breast cancer can start regular physical examination at the age of 20 years.References: [1] “6 anti-cancer physical examination can not save”. Life Times. 2014-09-23 [2] “Periodic screening for major cancers.” Pearl River Evening News. 2019-08-14[3]Some physical examinations are not found in the physical examination every year?Expert: Physical examination needs to have a “design sense”. Guangzhou Daily. 2019-09-20

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What are the channels of cancer cells in the body?

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In this era of “talking about cancer,” how terrible is cancer?Let’s look at the following set of data: In September 2018, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) released the latest global cancer statistics, the Global Cancer Report, in 2018.The report mentioned: In 2018, there were 18.1 million new cases of cancer in the world, and the number of deaths reached 9.6 million. The global incidence of cancer continues to rise.This means that one out of every five men worldwide will have cancer, and one out of every six women will have cancer.Even more frightening is that 1 in 8 men and 1 in 11 women will die.The five-year survival rate, that is, the number of people who survived after 5 years of cancer, is estimated to reach 43.8 million.There is also a terrible word about cancer, tumor metastasis.Many cancer patients still face the risk of tumor metastasis after surgery.Malignant tumors are a difficult problem for doctors at present, and they are also the most important type of diseases that have endangered human health.The American Cancer Society study found that tumor metastasis is the cause of death in 90% of cancer patients and the biggest stumbling block to the cancer cure rate.How is the tumor transferred?Direct spread.Direct spread means that the tumor cells spread directly to the surrounding tissue, causing the tumor to grow and metastasize.Blood transfer.When a malignant tumor invades a blood vessel, the cancer cell cancer cells flow with blood to some metastases formed by organs or tissues.It is common in gastric cancer and intestinal cancer to transfer to the liver through blood transfer.Lymphatic metastasis.The infiltrating tumor cells pass through the lymphatic wall, and after being detached, they are brought to the lymph nodes of the confluence area with the lymph fluid, and the same tumor is grown as a center.? Planting transfer.Malignant tumor cells, like seeds, are scattered everywhere where they are rooted and germinated everywhere, often forming a large number of “starry”-like diffuse metastatic lesions, common in malignant tumors in the thoracic and abdominal cavity.Where do tumors most like to move?Through the above four transfer pathways, tumors most like to transfer to these organs, such as bones, spine, and brain.1, bone metastasis bone metastasis, generally spread from the blood, the body’s body tissues and organs of malignant tumor cells can be transferred to the bone through the blood circulation system and lymphatic system, often multiple, rarely single.Bone damage and pain are the main manifestations.At present, more than 90% of malignant tumors of bone metastasis come from breast cancer, prostate tumor, lung tumor, thyroid tumor and kidney tumor.Breast tumors, lung tumors and renal tumors metastasize to the thoracic vertebrae; prostate tumors, cervical tumors, and rectal tumors metastasize to the lumbar spine; nasopharyngeal tumors and thyroid tumors tend to metastasize to the cervical spine.2, spine metastasis spine metastasis of the highest incidence in the 40-65 years old population, correspondingly the highest age of malignant tumors.Metastatic lesions invade the spine through a variety of mechanisms, including blood-borne, direct spread, and dissemination through the cerebrospinal fluid.In clinical work, it has also been found that many patients with spinal tumors who come to see a doctor and urgently need surgical resection have their cancer cells “transferred” from other sites, including breast cancer and lung cancer with the highest incidence in malignant tumors., prostate cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer, gastrointestinal tumors and gynecological tumors.3, intracranial transfer of intracranial metastases, also known as brain metastasis.The peak age of onset of intracranial metastases is 40 to 60 years old, with more men than women.Tumor cells in other parts of the body are transferred to the brain by some means and new lesions are formed in the brain.At home and abroad, intracranial metastasis is most common in lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer and breast cancer; children are more common in sarcoma and germ cell tumors.The location of intracranial metastasis is related to blood flow and tissue volume in this area, with the largest hemisphere in the brain and the most common frontal lobe.How to reduce the risk of tumor metastasis?For cancer patients, tumor metastasis is undoubtedly a second blow.At the same time, after the tumor metastasis, it also means that the treatment is more difficult.Therefore, reducing the risk of tumor metastasis is especially important for cancer patients.How to reduce the risk of tumor metastasis?First, regular review after surgery.In order to prevent the spread or metastasis of tumor cells, it is necessary to go to the hospital for regular review after surgery.Especially during the 5-year period of postoperative recurrence and metastasis, some tumors are diagnosed in the early stage, and actively cooperate with the treatment, generally can achieve better therapeutic effects, and even achieve the purpose of cure.Second, maintain a healthy lifestyle.For patients with malignant tumors, healthy living, regular work and rest are also very important “rule of governance” measures.Healthy lifestyle includes: combination of work and rest, moderate exercise, regular diet for three meals, avoid overeating, light low-fat diet, high-quality protein diet, quit smoking and drinking, not staying up late, not overworked.Only by doing a healthy life can you improve your immunity and minimize the cancer recurrence rate.Third, maintain a good attitude.A good attitude and mood is a “winning magic weapon” against malignant tumors.A number of studies have shown that a relatively optimistic mentality after cancer surgery helps to fight cancer, improve one’s immunity, reduce recurrence rate, and improve survival rate.Instead of being depressed all day and complaining about self-satisfaction, it is better to face the positive, treat the tumor with a positive attitude, change the passive to take the initiative, and actively cooperate with the treatment and review.Tumors are a major problem that threatens the health of human life. Tumor metastasis is the difficulty we have to overcome.Do you understand the main ways of tumor metastasis and the methods to prevent tumor metastasis?References: [1] “The new method can reactivate the “suppress” tumor gene.” Xinhuanet. 201-909-28 [2] “Tumor data for cancer precision prevention and control “navigation”.” Liberation Daily. 2019-07-29 [3] “Healthy China Action (2019-2030)”. Health and Health Commission website. 2019-07-15.

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China’s cancer critical medicine, where is the road?

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In order to further improve the professional and standardized comprehensive treatment level of cancer patients, actively explore the development path suitable for Chinese oncology and serious medicine, and promote the rapid development of China’s cancer critical medicine. On November 8, the third clinical study on the diagnosis and treatment of severe cases of cancer patientsThe meeting and the second Tianjin Cancer Accident Conference were successfully held in Tianjin.Chairman of the conference, the chairman of the China Cancer Society’s Cancer Critical Care Committee, the chairman of the Tianjin Cancer Society’s Cancer Critical Care Committee, and the director of the Department of Intensive Care of the Cancer Institute of Tianjin Medical University, Professor Wang Donghao, introduced the meeting.With the theme of “integration, collaboration and development”, the hot topics in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe tumors are discussed in depth through special lectures, conference speeches and experience sharing.So, as a new subject, how is tumor critical medicine correctly opened?What does tumor intensive medicine do?What are the characteristics of the patients admitted?As a sub-disciplinary specialty of oncology and severe disease, oncology medicine is an important stage in the whole cycle of cancer disease diagnosis and treatment.To improve the treatment level of patients with severe tumors, we must first understand the particularity of patients with severe tumors.Professor Yu Kaijiang, chairman of the China Cancer Society’s Cancer Critical Care Medicine Committee and dean of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, said that cancer has become one of the major diseases that threaten the health of the people.The incidence of cancer in China is high, and the five-year survival rate is not ideal. There is still a big gap compared with European and American countries.However, many patients with cancer have great hopes for treatment in the intensive stage. “The timely diagnosis and treatment of the intensive care department and the support technology and means of organ function can save or prolong the life of the patient.” Professor Gao Xinjing from Tianjin Third CenterAlthough the hospital is in the Department of Critical Care Medicine, although it is the Department of Critical Care Medicine in general hospitals, the proportion of cancer patients admitted to the department is relatively high.Professor Gao Xinjing said that at present, cancer is not a very distant thing from us. There are more than 14 million new tumors every year in the world, and there are more than 3 million new cancer patients in China every year.More and more patients with severe tumors.In fact, a considerable number of cancer patients do not die from the tumor disease itself, but die from other diseases caused by the tumor.Professor Gao Xinjing introduced that the cause of the death of many cancer patients and the age of death are similar to those of ordinary non-tumor populations.The main pathophysiological characteristics of patients with severe tumors are based on tumor invasion, or due to surgical trauma, immunodeficiency and metabolic abnormalities caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.And this kind of immune and metabolic abnormalities are long-term, they can easily lead to nutritional consumption, systemic infection and even organ failure.Infection is a common problem in severe tumors. After the immune function is damaged, the infection problem will be placed in a prominent position. If the infection is not well treated, it will lead to the insufficiency of one or more organs, although the clinical manifestations areComplex, but the key point of treatment is how to control the infection.For example, anatomical changes, including barrier destruction, innate immunity, and acquired immune defects, all contribute to the patient’s high-risk state of infection.Many people describe the Department of Critical Care Medicine (ICU) as the door to life and death. Chen Lei, head nurse of the Intensive Care Unit of the Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, said that the nurses of ICU are racing against life every day. “The process is related to the results, and the details determine success or failure.”As nursing staff, they have always been the first person to wait at the patient’s bedside, so they can find the patient’s subtle changes in the condition, and provide timely and accurate treatment for the patient, which can provide a good basis for winning valuable time for saving lives.As an interdisciplinary, how to integrate, innovate and develop?As an interdisciplinary subject between oncology and intensive care, oncology major medicine plays an indispensable role in clinical multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment of patients with severe tumors.At the same time, the development of tumor intensive medicine is also inseparable from the collaboration and integration of various brother disciplines.Professor Wang Donghao said that the complexity and particularity of patients with severe tumors determines the close coordination of multidisciplinary teams in the treatment of patients with severe tumors.”Fusion is not the same as integration. It is the process of continuous chemical reaction and integration among new things.Professor Yu Kaijiang believes that China’s critical medicine is also based on integration, and after continuous innovation and development, it has finally become an independent clinical secondary discipline. The birth of the discipline has far-reaching significance for the development of China’s critical medicine.Severe illness is an indispensable part of the multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment model (MDT) team. ICU medical staff can also play an important role in the comprehensive treatment of patients with severe tumors. A cancer patient may have many foundations such as hypertension and diabetes.The disease requires the ICU to consult with many departments such as oncology, oncology, and endocrinology to evaluate the risk and treatment of the disease and jointly develop treatment plans to ensure the desired therapeutic effect. In addition, human care is also not available to the ICU.In part, Professor Gao Xinjing said that the patient’s psychological state, sleep and immunity are closely related. The ideological pressure is heavy and the willingness to survive is not strong, which will affect the patient’s immune function. Therefore, psychological intervention for patients is also an important part.Chen Lei said that the patient learned the bodySuffering from cancer, you will fall into sorrowful emotions. Once you get sick in the ICU, it will be a double blow to patients and their families. “ICU is a cold door, but I hope to create a temperature ICU for cancer patients.Therefore, humanistic care is more important in the ICU.The challenge of tumor intensive care and the future compared with the general critically ill patients, the pathophysiological state of patients with severe tumors has its obvious characteristics, which determines the difficulty and challenge of the treatment of patients with severe tumors. With the overall development of oncology medical scienceTumor intensive medicine has a strong development opportunity, and at the same time, it is facing enormous challenges. Professor Wang Donghao introduced that with the aging of the population, tumor patients with hypertension, diabetes and other cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and lung disease composition ratioSignificantly increased, pathophysiological changes caused by malignant tumors and other underlying diseases can aggravate the patient’s disease state and increase the difficulty of treatment. In addition, as the means of cancer treatment become more and more abundant, the development of tumor critical medicine is also broader.As we all know, immunotherapy is an epoch-making treatment in the field of cancer. Immunotherapy has made some patients with incurable and incurable tumors have better benefits. However, it is unavoidable that immunotherapy has also brought many concurrency to cancer patients.Symptoms, such as fulminant myocarditis, skinInjury, damage to liver and kidney function, etc., which are tumors critical care workers need to face ..
Sepsis is the disease with the highest non-cardiac mortality in critically ill patients, and it is also a problem in the world of medical diagnosis and treatment. The sepsis of patients with severe tumors is also a huge challenge for doctors.Professor Zhu Xi from Fudan University Affiliated Tumor Hospital said that due to the special use of chemotherapy drugs or autoimmune dysfunction in patients with severe tumors, sepsis also has certain characteristics, such as faster progression and more infections.Therefore, for patients with severe sepsis with sepsis, clinicians should fully understand the characteristics of the disease, pay attention to the patient’s protective isolation and prevention, pay attention to the treatment of acute respiratory failure and organ failure, and improve their rescue success rate.In addition, the doctor should strengthen the understanding of the patient and make corresponding treatment according to the characteristics of the patient.With the continuous advancement of medical standards, malignant tumors have changed from the past “incurable disease” to today’s “can prevent and control” chronic diseases, and elderly patients with frail tumors also have the opportunity to try complex radical surgery.High-dose chemotherapy regimens and targeted drugs are more likely to be radical or long-term tumor-bearing.On this basis, how to further improve the overall treatment effect and quality of life of cancer patients is an urgent problem to be solved in the future. , please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright owner.

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What checks can you find lung cancer?

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When you ignite a cigarette, maybe you think that lung cancer is far away from you; when cooking in the kitchen, maybe you think that lung cancer is far away from you; in the smoggy weather, maybe you think lung cancer is far away from you… see belowThis group of thought-provoking data, maybe you will change your mind.According to the statistics of global cancer in 2018, there are about 14.09 million new cancer cases in the world each year, and the deaths are about 8.2 million. Among them, the number of lung cancer cases is about 1.825 million, and the number of deaths is about 1.59 million.Lung cancer still won the first place with an incidence rate of 11.6% and a mortality rate of 18.4%. It is a well-deserved “king of cancer”.Lung cancer is also China’s number one “cancer killer”, with the highest incidence rate and the highest mortality rate.According to statistics, the number of new cases of lung cancer in China exceeds 730,000, the death toll exceeds 610,000, and the 5-year survival rate is as low as 16.1%.The reason why lung cancer is highly prevalent is that people do not know enough about it, so it is difficult to attract people’s attention.In addition, the early symptoms of lung cancer are not obvious. Many patients with lung cancer find that they are in physical discomfort. They are already in the middle and late stages of lung cancer and missed the best treatment time.Prevent lung cancer, start with me.First, we need to understand the common symptoms of early onset of lung cancer.Secondly, we have to do early screening to kill cancer in the bud.Lung cancer has these early symptoms. 1. Cough and cough are common symptoms of lung cancer. This is because lung cancer cells grow on the bronchopulmonary tissues, irritating the respiratory tract and causing poor breathing.About 70% of lung cancer patients have symptoms of cough, which is characterized by dry cough and sputum. The cough lasts for a long time, the frequency is high, and even severe coughing out bloody sputum.2. Chest and back pain On the one hand, the lung cancer mass is increasing, which makes the chest and back feel oppressive, so there will be a feeling of chest and back pain.On the other hand, as the cough increases, the pain in the chest and back will become more and more obvious.3. The hoarseness of lung cancer is transferred to the supraclavicular lymph nodes, which can lead to inflammation of the glottis and pharynx, and a lumps or hoarseness in the neck are obvious manifestations.4. Facial and limb edema When lung cancer is invaded or transferred to the lymph nodes, it is easy to oppress the vena cava, affecting venous return, causing poor blood, leading to swelling of the face and limbs, accompanied by joint pain.5. Hemoptysis This is a common symptom in the middle and late stage of lung cancer. When the lung cancer tumor is necrotic, it will cause capillary damage.The blood vessels rupture, causing blood or hemoptysis in the sputum.These people are prone to lung cancer, do you have it?The early symptoms of lung cancer are easily overlooked. Therefore, we should pay attention to the observation of physical changes. People with high risk of lung cancer should have regular physical examinations and timely report lung cancer signals.So, who are the high-risk groups of lung cancer?People over the age of 40, people with long-term smoking habits, people with a family history of lung cancer, people with a history of lung disease or tumor disease, people working under mines or in particularly polluted environments are all at high risk of lung cancer.crowd.In particular, people who have long-term smoking habits are the ones most likely to be targeted by lung cancer.At present, there are about 300 million smokers and 740 million second-hand smoke victims in China. More than 80% of patients who die from lung cancer are caused by smoking or passive smoking.Screening for lung cancer can not rely on chest radiographs Currently, lung cancer early screening methods mainly include chest CT, needle biopsy, low-dose spiral CT.First of all, talk about chest CT, chest CT is also known as the “filming”, the advantage of this lung cancer screening method is convenient, fast, economical, can clearly record lung inflammation, lumps, tuberculosis and other large lung lesions.The disadvantage is that the diagnosis depends mainly on the size and location of the lesion, the quality of the image, and the skill level of the doctor. The rate of early lung cancer is high, and it has a certain dose of radiation.Secondly, needle biopsy is also a common screening method for lung cancer.Lung cancer biopsy is generally performed under the guidance of B-ultrasound. The common method is fine needle aspiration cytology.The puncture needle used in the biopsy is generally a 5 ml syringe or a PTC needle that is thinner than a 5 ml syringe.The patient punctures 3 needles under local anesthesia or non-anesthesia, extracts part of the tissue for smear, performs pathological cytology examination, and further genetic testing to confirm the nodules of the nodules. The test results can be obtained in about 1-2 days..In addition, low-dose spiral CT can also effectively detect lung cancer.The low-dose spiral CT can three-dimensionally observe the scanned position and rotate through different angles to finally accurately determine the specific location of the lung cancer lesion.Compared with chest CT, low-dose spiral CT is non-invasive, fast, intuitive, and cost-effective. The stage I lung cancer found is 6 times that of chest radiograph.References: [1] “Shanghai: “early detection and early intervention” to achieve chronic disease of lung cancer.” Xinmin Evening News. 2019-08-27 [2] “These groups may have high incidence of lung cancer.” Guangzhou Daily. 2019-10-18[3] “Lung cancer can be a long-term treatment of “chronic disease” long-term survival.” Guangzhou Daily. 2019-06-28.

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The palm of your hand is like a tripe. How do you get the clues of cancer from your skin?

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The skin is a mirror of good health, which reflects whether the machine is working properly.Recently, the New England Journal of Medicine published such a case. The palm of the patient’s palm is shaped like a hot pot. It is something to be eaten. What is going on?Patient profile: Female, 73 years old, had a smoking history of 30 packs. The first time in the palm of the hand, itching and pain were found in the dermatology clinic.The patient has been complaining of cough for one year and has lost 5 kg in the past 4 months.Physical examination revealed a velvety appearance and wrinkles on the palm surface, and her hand wrinkles also showed a clear boundary.This situation is called “carotine palm”, and the diseases closely related to it are cancer, especially lung cancer and stomach cancer.CT scan revealed irregular nodules in the left upper lobe, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and biopsy specimens confirmed adenocarcinoma.The patient then received chemotherapy and radiation therapy.”Cornfoot” can be solved by treating potential cancer.However, the patient’s lesion did not resolve with chemotherapy or with a 10% urea ointment.The patient progressed with cancer six months after the visit and started a second-line chemotherapy regimen.The skin manifestations of malignant tumors are direct spread of invasive or metastatic skin, such as breast cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, kidney cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, and blood system malignant tumors.It is a paraneoplastic skin manifestation, such as dermatomyositis, malignant acanthosis, sweet syndrome, paraneoplastic pemphigus, and other genetic syndromes that coexist with tumors.Understanding and understanding the skin manifestations associated with malignant tumors can help diagnose potential tumors.1. Malignant tumors Skin metastasis of malignant tumors refers to the pathological changes of malignant tumors that are secondary to the skin through blood circulation or lymphatic circulation, tissue gap diffusion or surgical implantation, which is the late manifestation of cancer, and a few may be the first stage of malignant tumors.Symptoms, domestic literature reports that 10% to 18% of patients with skin metastases are the first symptoms of the tumor, which can provide clues for the discovery and diagnosis of primary tumors.Once a skin metastasis occurs in a malignant tumor, it often indicates that the tumor cells are extensively infiltrated and the body’s immune function is severely degraded, sometimes accompanied by metastasis of other organs, and the prognosis is poor.In the treatment, it is mainly for radiotherapy and chemotherapy for primary tumors.1.Common sources of skin metastases: The primary cancer of women with skin metastases is most common in breast cancer, and other include gastric cancer, rectal cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and kidney cancer.The primary cancer of male patients with metastatic carcinoma of the skin is most common in lung cancer. Others include bladder cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer and malignant melanoma.2.Clinical manifestations of skin metastases: Clinically, skin metastases can be single or multiple, more common in the chest, abdomen, shoulders, back, scalp, vulva, etc., and can also be seen in the limbs.Skin lesions often appear as skin color or dark red round or oval nodules, lumps, invasive erythema, hard texture, poor mobility, smooth or broken surface, generally no obvious symptoms, a few have pain.3.Histopathological changes in skin metastatic carcinoma: The histopathological manifestations of skin metastases vary from tumor tissue to tissue, but have some common features, namely, stellate-shaped tissue cells between the dermis and subcutaneous tissue.There are similar cell clusters in the lumen of the tube or venule.4.Skin leukemia: The skin infiltration of malignant blood cells is skin leukemia, which is caused by leukemia cells infiltrating the skin. Most of them are secondary, which can be expressed as papules, nodules, plaques, masses, etc. The histological features of infiltrating cells are consistent with the primary disease..There are also leukemias with rash as the first symptom, which should be taken seriously.Second, paraneoplastic dermatological paraneoplastic skin including a group of non-genetic skin diseases with visceral tumors, such as dermatomyositis, malignant acanthosis, Sweet syndrome, paraneoplastic pemphigus, acquired ichthyosis,Necrotic loosening erythema, Leser-Trelat sign, gangrenous pyoderma, skin amyloidosis, etc., are clinical syndromes in which malignant visceral tumors coexist with inflammatory reactions of the skin. The understanding of these diseases can be visceral malignant tumors.Early diagnosis and diagnosis provide opportunities.1.Dermatomyositis: The proportion of dermatomyositis associated with malignant tumors, reported in the literature is 15% to 60%, the incidence of tumors increases with age, more common in patients over 40 years old.Domestic and foreign literature reports that dermatomyositis occurs before malignant tumors, and both occur simultaneously or malignant tumors precede dermatomyositis. The accompanying tumors are more common in lung cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer,Prostate cancer, kidney cancer, leukemia, etc.Patients with dermatomyositis appear as bright red, red or brown-red diffuse spots, and the slides can be regressed, called malignant erythema.When it occurs on the face, it is characterized by burgundy plaques, inclusions of punctate pigmentation spots, and agglomerated capillaries.The appearance of malignant erythema may be highly correlated with malignant tumors.2.Malignant acanthosis nigricans: Acanthosis nigricans with malignant tumors is called malignant acanthosis nigricans, 20% appear before tumors, and the rest appear after tumors.Acanthosis nigricans manifest as pigmentation and velvety appearance in the skin folds.Compared with benign acanthosis nigricans, malignant acanthosis nigricans has a short course of disease, rapid development, and progressive, more common in middle-aged and elderly patients, clinical symptoms such as rough skin, pigmentation and papilloma-like lesions of the skin are extensive and significant, and palmarCharacteristic velvet-like or bovine-like changes.The bovine-like palm is a characteristic manifestation of malignant acanthosis nigricans, which is common in gastric adenocarcinoma and lung cancer. Other tumors occur in the uterus, breast, ovary and liver.Sweet syndrome: Sweet syndrome, acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, with fever, increased peripheral white blood cell count, painful red papules, nodules, plaques, and mature neutrality distributed in the superficial dermisA reactive skin disease characterized by granulocyte infiltration, which may be associated with malignant tumors, is associated with malignant tumors, of which 85% are hematological tumors.Therefore, patients with a diagnosis of Sweet syndrome should be further systematically examined to check for possible malignant tumors.4.Paraneoplastic pemphigus: Paraneoplastic pemphigus is an autoimmune disease associated with tumors, and the patient can produce IgG autoantibodies that recognize epidermal adhesion proteins (proteins in desmosome and hemidesmosome).Almost all patients in this group have extensive and severe lip and oral mucosal erosion or ulceration. In some patients, the ocular membrane and genital mucosa also have erosions and ulcers at the same time; the skin lesions are pemphigus-like blisters, lichen planus and polymorphic erythema.The rash is more common, and the erythematous lesion of the erythema is characteristic.The most common tumor associated with paraneoplastic pemphigus in China is Castleman’s disease. In addition, fibrous tissue lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and thymoma can be seen.The most important measure for the treatment of paraneoplastic pemphigus is early detection and complete removal of the tumor, and timely termination of the production of pathogenic antibodies is the key to reducing mortality.For patients with benign tumor resectable, resection of the tumor will improve symptoms and relieve the disease; for patients with malignant tumors, the treatment of resection of the tumor often does not affect the activity of the disease, and the mortality rate is high.5.Acquired ichthyosis: Adult acquired ichthyosis may be associated with malignancy.It appears as a scale of diffuse white and brown diamonds on the torso and extremities, and the edges are raised.Histology showed normal hyperkeratosis, thinning or lack of granular layers.70% to 80% of the malignant tumors associated with acquired ichthyosis are Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and also associated with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and leukemia.Necrotic loosening erythema: is a paraneoplastic skin syndrome characterized by recurrent necrotic erythema, often accompanied by glucagonoma, is a glucagonoma syndromeThe most characteristic skin manifestations are also the primary diagnostic basis for most cases.The clinical manifestations of the facial, abdomen, thigh, perianal and perioral ring of migratory erythema, surface erosion, exudation, scarring, a centrifugal expansion.Once the glucagonoma is diagnosed, it should be removed as soon as possible.7.Leser-Trelat sign: Leser-Trelat signs sudden sudden increase or increase in lesions of sudden seborrheic keratosis or seborrheic keratosis, often complicated by visceral malignancies.Gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma and lymphoproliferative diseases are common in the combined tumors, but pregnancy and some benign tumors are also associated with this disease.For patients with sudden and intensive seborrheic keratosis with pruritus in middle-aged and elderly patients, the possibility of the Leser-Trelat sign should be considered, and detailed examination should be performed to detect possible malignant tumors.8.Other paraneoplastic skin diseases: Other paraneoplastic skin diseases including gangrenous pyoderma, skin amyloidosis, progressive necrotizing yellow granuloma, sclerosing mucinous edema, paraneoplastic kyphosis, carcinoid syndromeWait.It is worth noting that the long-term pruritus of the elderly may be a concomitant manifestation of malignant tumors, and relevant examinations should be completed to detect possible malignant tumors.Third, the genetic syndrome associated with malignant tumors.
Including some very rare genetic syndromes, such as Bagex syndrome, Bannayan-Zonana syndrome, Gardner syndrome, sputum-like basal cell carcinoma syndrome, etc., clinically rare, not to repeat.In summary, the skin is the largest organ in the human body. Many malignant tumors can show specific or non-specific skin lesions on the skin. Comprehensive medical history collection, physical examination and auxiliary examination can help to find potential good early detection.Malignant tumor.At the same time, the study of skin changes will help to further clarify the pathophysiological characteristics of the tumor and help early detection and treatment of the tumor. , please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright owner.

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CANCER

With cancer, surgery is the “best choice”?

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It is unfortunate that relatives in the family have cancer, but the more they are in the face of misfortune, the more they test the willpower of their families.Whether it is sensible to make choices and judgments, many times will determine the fate of relatives.For example, relatives of many cancer patients may face such a choice: whether to do surgery, should not sign the surgical consent form?Cancer must be treated with surgery?Although cancer treatment methods have made significant progress in recent years, many people are still very jealous of surgical treatment. They feel that surgery can not be cured, and the body will be accelerated, which will accelerate the spread of cancer.In fact, there is no absolute answer to the treatment of cancer with good or bad surgery.Doctors treating cancer need to make comprehensive choices based on factors such as the patient’s condition, constitution, and age.Surgical treatment of cancer is generally used to cure benign tumors and adjuvant treatment of malignant tumors.Benign tumors usually grow slowly, have a capsule on the surface, and can be directly removed by surgery. No early or no postoperative radiotherapy is required, and the five-year survival rate can reach more than 90%.Therefore, as long as the patient’s physical condition allows, surgery is the first choice for the treatment of benign tumors.If the malignant tumor is early, it can be directly removed by surgery, but if it reaches the middle and late stage, the tumor metastasizes. At this time, only the surgical treatment can not clear all cancer cells.However, if you do not rely on surgery to remove a large primary tumor, but directly with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, you will need a large dose of drugs, and severe side effects will make it difficult for patients to bear.Therefore, surgical treatment for malignant tumors is generally used to reduce the body tumor burden and assist in subsequent radiotherapy and chemotherapy.Therefore, surgical treatment does not accelerate the spread of cancer. Professionally responsible medical teams generally give optimal treatment recommendations. It is not advisable to blindly refuse surgery.Is the family signing the consent form for exemption?Although the medical team will give professional advice, the final choice is still the cancer patients themselves and relatives.Surgery, especially before major surgery, requires relatives to sign a surgical consent form.Many people do not understand the significance of signing this consent form, and even think that it is the behavior of the hospital to pass on the responsibility. For this reason, many tragedies have been made.Time reverted back to 2017, Yulin, Shaanxi, pregnant women, Ma, jumped to the building to commit suicide, a corpse and two lives.After the hospital issued a statement saying that the hospital’s advice is maternal cesarean section, but the maternal family insisted on the birth, and signed the “consent” hope to yield.In 2007, pregnant woman Li also refused to sign a cesarean section because of her boyfriend Xiaomou, and eventually died.These painful incidents are asking us questions: What are the reasons for asking relatives to sign before surgery?If there is no signature from a relative, is it necessary to perform the operation?First of all, we must break a misunderstanding.The signature before the operation is not a hospital disclaimer agreement, nor is it a notice of the patient and the family members at their own risk.Even if the relatives signed the word, the hospital made mistakes during the operation, and the same responsibility was assumed.So, what is the significance of signing the surgical consent form?Surgical treatment, especially for major operations such as cancer surgery, often has certain risks.Surgery is a trauma to the body; anesthesia may lead to blood pressure drop, cardiac arrest and other accidents; cancer surgery may damage adjacent organs or tissues, or may not be removed after surgery. Other treatments may be needed; postoperative may occurIncision infection, complications, etc.These risks need to be fully understood by the family before surgery, to obtain a consensus on the disease, to receive surgical treatment under the premise of true understanding, to legally protect the right to know of patients and their families, and to avoid unnecessary misunderstandings and disputes.At the same time, through the signature, the family members can be psychologically prepared, and cooperate with the psychological construction of the patients, especially those requiring the removal of organs or amputations. It is also necessary for the family members to support the patients and lay a good foundation for future care.Rescuing people is the first major task of general anesthesia. Adult patients only need to sign their own signatures. Major surgery for general anesthesia must be signed by family members or clients.However, it is easy to think that if the emergency operation is performed and the family members are not around, can the hospital see death?Rest assured, the relevant laws have long stipulated that if the emergency situation of patients who are dying of life is rescued, and the consent of the patient or close relatives cannot be obtained in time, the person in charge of the medical institution or the person in charge of authorization can be reported to the person in charge of the authorization of the medical institution.Implement rescue.On the contrary, if the doctor does not carry out the rescue in time, he may have to bear the corresponding legal responsibility.References: [1]. “After surgery, cancer will “run”?”People’s Network. November 29, 2018 [2]. “Surgery signature and patient benefit maximization”. Nanfang Daily. December 15, 2017 [3]. Yan Yan knows the treatment of cancer. Chinese health care.2015, 2:18-19.

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CANCER

Hormone therapy can induce breast cancer?

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October is the month of breast cancer prevention, and I have received many letters from readers about breast cancer. Among them, a woman named Wang: “I am 49 years old, have been menopause for half a year, and recently face flushing, sweating, irritability, insomnia.Considering the menopause, the doctor suggested that I use hormone therapy. But I learned online that this treatment will affect the breast and may induce breast cancer. Is it true?” Good questioned, now everyone is almost hormoneTreatment talks about tiger color change, but it is worth noting that since it is recommended by doctors, it must be positive.Below, I would like to ask you to talk about the relationship between hormone therapy and breast cancer.I don’t know where the information that Ms. Wang saw on the Internet came from, but a recent article in The Lancet did analyze the correlation between hormone therapy and breast cancer.Many self-medias on the Internet have also supported their views by compiling the study, the re-editing of the compilation of the study, and the re-editing of the version.However, the information has undergone more or less deviations after repeated transmissions. The research published in The Lancet is a meta-analysis. Simply put, the research on a certain topic in previous years is compared and studied.See what new conclusions can be drawn.This article analyzes 58 published and unpublished worldwide studies on the association between MHT (menopausal hormone therapy) and breast cancer risk from January 1, 1992 to January 1, 2018, involving 100,000Multiple menopausal women with breast cancer.The results showed that after taking estrogen for 5 years, the risk of breast cancer accumulated in 20 years was increased by 1 case per 200 people; taking estrogen + intermittent progesterone, the risk of breast cancer accumulated in 20 years was increased by 1 case per 70 people; estrogen+ Take progesterone every day, and increase in 1 case for every 50 people in 20 years.From the data point of view, the analysis of “Lancet” does prove that hormone therapy can induce breast cancer.Just talking about the data, not talking about the probability that these are “running hooligans” in the past few years, the health science article always said that “do not talk about the dose of toxicity, are hooligans.”Similarly, regardless of the probability, light talks can induce cancer, and it is also a hooligan.Although the Lancet proves that hormone therapy can induce breast cancer, we can convert the above results: taking estrogen for 5 years, the risk of breast cancer accumulation in 20 years is 0.5%, and the risk of breast cancer converted into 1 year is0.05%; as for those taking estrogen + progesterone, the risk of breast cancer for one year is between 0.07% and 0.1%, which is a small probability event.Wu Kezhen, director of the Department of Breast Medicine at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital affiliated to Fudan University, also said that estrogen therapy alone may not increase the risk of breast cancer, and if continuous use of estrogen and progesterone combination therapy, the risk of breast cancer is not combined therapy.1.5 to 2 times, but the risk is still very small, every 1000 cases of estrogen and progesterone combination treatment, breast cancer cases are not even one case.This is close to the conversion result above.Therefore, the probability of hormone therapy-induced breast cancer is not as high as the risk of breast cancer caused by exercise, obesity, alcoholism, etc. If menopausal women have severe menopausal symptoms, doctors recommend hormone therapy without excessive worry about breast cancer.In general, the benefits of hormone therapy far outweigh the disadvantages.In addition to the probability of hormones, the risk of MHT breast cancer analyzed in the study of the Lancet is mainly from synthetic progesterone.Since 2002, it has been clinically recommended to use natural estrogen + natural progesterone or the closest natural dydrogesterone. These natural hormones will not stimulate cancer cells and even promote cancer cell apoptosis.Therefore, I would like to remind you that when you are taking hormone therapy, try to choose natural estrogen, progesterone or dydrogesterone.References: 1, Type and timing of menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence [J]. The Lancet, 2019, 394 (10204). 2, Zhang Jingchen, Liu Wei, Mao Dahua.Correlation between apoptotic cell ratio and expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor-2 in breast cancer[J].Chinese Journal of Health Laboratory Technology, 2019,29(2):218-220.

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CANCER

How is androgen related to breast cancer chemotherapy?

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01 Androgen receptor predicts response to chemotherapy in breast cancer patients The androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in both normal breast epithelial cells and invasive breast cancer and is thought to be involved in the prognosis of breast cancer patients.Recent studies from Germany further analyzed the relationship between AR expression and breast cancer treatment response, and found that patients with higher AR expression levels had lower rates of pathologic complete response (pCR), but overall survival prognosis was better.The study was published in the British Journal of Cancer.The study included 118 HER2-positive patients in the TECHNO trial and 321 HER2-positive/negative patients in the PREPARE trial. RT-qPCR was used to analyze AR mRNA expression during neoadjuvant chemotherapy and to detect AR.Expression of two subtypes AR1 and AR2.61.3% of HER2-like patients and 60.0% of Luminal-type patients had higher AR mRNA expression, but only 4.3% of patients with triple-negative breast cancer were expressed.The analysis found that higher AR mRNA levels were associated with lower pCR rates, and for each unit of AR mRNA expression, the corresponding pCR rate was reduced by 23% (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.67–0.88; p=0.0002).However, patients with higher AR expression will have a better prognosis for long-term survival.The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with AR mRNA expression increased by one unit (0.57, 0.39–0.85, p=0.0054; 0.43, 0.26-0.71, p)=0.0011).In the PREPARE trial, survival differences in patients with different AR1 mRNA levels were only observed in the standard chemotherapy group (0.41, 0.22–0.74), but not in the dose-intensive treatment group (1.05, 0.52–2.13).Studies have shown that the expression level of AR mRNA can predict the response of breast cancer patients to treatment.There is now growing evidence that dose-intensive chemotherapy is beneficial for breast cancer patients, but currently only lymph node positivity in patient selection can guide the choice of whether to start this treatment.The results of this study suggest that AR1 mRNA expression levels may also be used as a reference in this treatment decision.02 Intensive chemotherapy for high-risk breast cancer patients can significantly improve survival. Chemotherapy is an adjuvant treatment option for many postoperative patients with breast cancer. Although common doses of chemotherapy also have good results, for high-risk breast cancer patients, the dose is increased.Intensive chemotherapy regimens appear to improve patient survival.Recent exploratory analysis of the GIM2 trial has shown that high-risk breast cancer patients receiving intensive chemotherapy can significantly improve patient survival, but HER2-positive patients receiving trastuzumab adjuvant therapy may benefit less.The study was published in the International Journal of Cancer.The study included a total of 2003 lymph node-positive early-stage breast cancer patients, of which 452 were positive for HER2 expression.Patients were randomized to receive standard-dose chemotherapy-intensive chemotherapy, of which 320 patients received chemotherapy alone and 132 patients received adjuvant therapy with trastuzumab.The median follow-up event for the study was 8.1 years, and the researchers analyzed the effects of different treatment regimens on DFS and OS in patients.The results showed that there was no significant difference in the 7-year DFS rate between the intensive and standard chemotherapy groups in the HER2-positive non-tradox-treated group (72.1% vs 64.4%; aHR 0.79, 95% CI 0.53-1/17), OS rateThere were also no significant differences (85.2% vs 78.6%; 0.59, 0.34-1.03); there was no difference in 7-year DFS and OS rates between the intensive and standard chemotherapy groups in the HER2-positive trastuzumab group (68.7% vs72.3%; 0.71, 0.35-1.42; 84.9% vs 86.1%; 0.91, 0.31-2.68); However, in the HER2 negative/unknown group, the 7-year DFS rate and OS rate were significantly better in the intensive chemotherapy group than in the standard treatment group.(78.7% vs 72.1%; 0.72, 0.59-0.87; 90.9% vs 85.3%; 0.64, 0.49-0.84); No HER2 status and trastuzumab adjuvant therapy were found in the standard and intensive treatment groups.The impact on patient survival.Studies suggest that intensive chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer patients can significantly improve patients’ DFS rate and OS rate, but whether HER2-positive patients receiving trastuzumab adjuvant therapy can still benefit from it, if anyThe benefits may also be small.03 Classic antipsychotics and doubling the risk of breast cancer in situ The antipsychotic drugs may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but the results of the current study are not consistent.The relationship between the two may be related to an increase in prolactin levels, and the side effects of elevated prolactin in classic antipsychotic drugs are more pronounced.Recent studies based on data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) cohort assessed the relationship between the two, suggesting that classic antipsychotics may be associated with a doubling of the risk of breast cancer.The study was published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.The study was based on the WHI cohort, which included more than 161,000 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years from 40 centers, followed for more than 14.8 years.Participants’ antipsychotic use and breast cancer incidence were well documented, including any antipsychotics, classic antipsychotics, non-classical antipsychotics, and lithium salts.The results showed that the use of antipsychotic drugs was very low. Only 642 (0.4%) women used antipsychotic drugs during follow-up, but 10067 patients with invasive breast cancer and 2285 patients with breast carcinoma in situ were diagnosed.come out..
The use of any psychotropic drug was not associated with the risk of developing invasive breast cancer (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.57-1.18), but appeared to be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in situ (1.66, 0.98-2.81).Among them, the risk of breast cancer in situ in women with classic antipsychotics is increased (2.05, 0.97-4.30).This phenomenon persists in women who regularly undergo X-ray mammography.The study pointed out that since only seven users of classic antipsychotic drugs were diagnosed as breast carcinoma in situ, the mechanism of breast cancer in situ has not been found in classical antipsychotic drugs, so the interpretation of this study needs to be moreBe cautious.The researchers believe that this result will help us to understand the safety of antipsychotic drugs, which can be considered by patients and doctors considering the use of these drugs. , please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright owner.

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CANCER

If you feel swollen lymph nodes, will it be cancer?

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Lymphoma is more common in people over the age of 50, but recently, a cancer hospital in Jiangsu received a young patient.Xiaohu is 22 years old. “There are more games for esports, and often stay up until 5 or 6 in the morning.” Xiao Hu said that such staying nights lasted almost a year.As early as a year and a half ago, there was a lump in Xiao Hu’s groin.Because the lumps are not big, I don’t care too much.As time went on, the tumor swollen to the size of a fist, and Xiao Hu thought of coming to the hospital.Unfortunately, 22-year-old was diagnosed with malignant lymphoma.Xiao Hu’s situation is not a case.Not long ago, a 21-year-old female college student was also diagnosed with lymphoma. The patient Xiao Li often stayed up late to two or three in the morning for several years. Later, symptoms such as weight loss and anemia gradually appeared, until the physical examination found that intestinal obstruction was taken seriously.After the examination, it was already in the advanced stage of lymphoma and missed the best chance of surgery.Lymphoma is very fierce, high-risk population should pay attention to according to the World Health Organization statistics, the annual growth rate of lymphoma is 7.5%, which is one of the fastest growing malignant tumors.People who are frequently exposed to radiation, such as medical personnel, patients who have received radiation therapy; people with low autoimmune diseases and history of immune diseases or organ transplants are at high risk of lymphoma.In addition, long-term staying up late will reduce the body’s immunity, the body is in a state of stress for a long time, and the damage of organ function is slowly revealed, which may cause some serious diseases, especially malignant tumors such as lymphoma.Not only lymph nodes, these symptoms are also signal lymphomas are generally high in the 20-30 years old, and in the two ages after the age of 60.Because of the whole body up and down, any part can grow lymphoma, so the performance is relatively hidden, not easy to be detected, early detection of symptoms, timely treatment, the cure rate will be greatly improved.About 60% to 80% of lymphoma symptoms are painless neck or neck lymphadenopathy, and the left side is more than the right side.The swollen lymph nodes will compress the nerves and adjacent organs and cause other symptoms. A small number of patients will have swollen lymph nodes after drinking.20% to 30% of lymphoma patients with fever, night sweats, weight loss, fever and low fever and intermittent high fever.In addition, swollen lymph nodes can cause difficulty in swallowing in the esophagus, and abdominal pain, stomach discomfort, and symptoms of diarrhea can occur in the digestive tract. Compression of the trachea can cause cough, chest tightness, and difficulty breathing.Prevention of lymphoma, all aspects must pay attention to the cause of lymphoma is not clear, but it is closely related to viral infection (EB virus infection), radiation, chemical drugs and so on.Therefore, starting from environmental factors, avoid contact with various rays and some radioactive substances, and do not touch related toxic substances, such as benzene, vinyl chloride, rubber, arsenic, gasoline, organic solvent coatings, etc., do not eat contaminated water, crops,Vegetable fish, do not eat moldy food, can prevent lymphoma from the source of infection, prevent disease from entering the mouth.Excessive consumption of “heavy taste” foods such as pickled products, spicy strips, and grilled foods may increase the risk of lymphoma.Some high-risk people with lymphoma who are frail or have a genetic disease of a certain disease can eat some alkaline foods with high alkali content, such as yam, kelp, bitter gourd, banana, mango, tea, coffee, etc.;The amount of exercise for more than 30 minutes each time helps to promote blood circulation, enhance immunity, maintain a good mental state, and prevent lymphoma.Clinical statistical analysis found that most patients with lymphoma had different levels of emotional and psychological problems in the early stage.The immune function of the human body is closely related to psychological factors, and the body’s immune system is largely regulated by emotions.Long-term low or depressed state, leading to central nervous system disorders, endocrine system disorders, visceral function weakened, the body’s immune function is inhibited, increase the risk of lymphoma.Keeping a good mood and being a laughing person can relieve physical fatigue and pain more than any panacea.References: 1. Early detection and early diagnosis of lymphoma is a curable disease. People’s Daily. 2019-09-20.2, “The incidence of lymphoma is rising but not so terrible.” Science and Technology Daily. 2019-04-18.3, “Most of the lymphoma treatment does not require surgery.” Beijing News. 2014-08-08.

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