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More than lung cancer!

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In this new crown obstruction battle without gunpowder smoke, there is a core scientific question: how exactly does the new coronavirus invade the human body?Thanks to the joint efforts of multi-party research teams, the answer to this question has a more precise answer: 2019-nCoV, like SARS, infects cells through the ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) receptor.ACE2 is mainly expressed in human type II alveolar cells (AT2), which means that it is likely to be the target cell of neocoronavirus.This explains why pneumonia occurs in 100% of new crown virus infections.Knowing the target cells, new questions ensued: Which groups of people are relatively more susceptible to infection with the new crown virus, that is, more likely to express ACE2?Only by knowing the answer to this question can we better identify susceptible people (although the current data show that everyone is susceptible).Professor Guoshuai Cai, a professor at the University of South Carolina, analyzed large-scale data sets and found that race, age, and gender were not the differentiating factors for ACE2 gene expression.However, ACE2 gene expression was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, suggesting that smokers may be more susceptible to infection with the new crown virus.The study was published on the preprinted website medRxiv on February 17.ACE2 gene expression was significantly increased in smokers. The authors analyzed two RNA-seq datasets and two DNA microarray datasets from white and Asian lung cancer patients. All datasets included paired tumors and normal samples.Personnel used only normal sample data.Key findings: There were no significant differences in ACE2 gene expression between races (Asian and Caucasian), age (greater than 60 years old and younger than 60 years), or gender (male and female).This is different from the previous study of the team of professor Zuo Wei of the Medical College of Tongji University in Shanghai who found that Asian males expressed more ACE2 cells than other races (2.5% vs 0.47%).However, in three data sets containing a history of smoking, the expression of the ACE2 gene was increased in smokers.After adjusting for other factors (age, gender, ethnicity, and data set), smokers still showed a significant increase in ACE2 (p = 0.01).Moreover, there was no significant difference in the expression level of ACE2 gene in the lung tissue of different ethnic groups.ACE2 expressing cells may differ between smokers and nonsmokers.Previous studies have shown that the bronchial epithelial cells of smokers are rebuilt, the number of rod cells is reduced, and goblet cells are proliferated.The researchers found that ACE2 is mainly expressed in goblet cells in smokers, but not in rod cells in nonsmokers.In summary, this analysis suggests that smokers may be more susceptible to infection with 2019-nCoV, so smoking history should be considered when identifying susceptible populations and standardized treatment options.It should be noted that this study also has certain limitations.For example, the data analyzed in this study came from normal lung tissue in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, which may differ from lung tissue in healthy people.These analyses are based on the average expression of large tissues, which is not conducive to assessing the ACE2 expression level of specific cells (for example, AT2 cells can specifically express high levels of ACE2).Whether ACE2 is the sole receptor for 2019-nCoV is unclear.Of course, in this study, the “correlation relationship” between ACE2 expression level and smoking is not equal to causality. What kind of factors cause the correlation needs to be further studied to verify.Smokers have far lower infection rates than nonsmokers?Stop dreaming!Regarding the relationship between smoking and viral infections, rumors on social media seem to have never stopped.As early as the SARS virus raged, some people fabricated a rumor that “smoking can prevent SARS.” Some even provided a so-called theoretical basis for this: “Smoke oil can cover the surface of lung cells, which is equivalent to a tight protective layer. The virusIf you enter the lungs, you will be blocked by smoke oil and cannot be copied. “However, such rumors are obviously self-defeating.In theory, smoking can cause a lot of damage to lung cells, and the injured cells are obviously more susceptible to virus infection.Moreover, studies in Hong Kong and South Korea have confirmed that the mortality rate of SARS or MERS is significantly higher among smokers or patients with a history of smoking than non-smokers.It is irritating that such rumors “re-emerged” again during the new crown epidemic.On February 9, Zhong Nanshan’s team published a paper entitled “Clinical Features of a New Type of Coronavirus Infection in China” on medRxiv.Surprisingly, after that, a piece of “Smokers’ infection rate with the new crown virus was much lower than that of non-smokers?”Zhong Nanshan’s first paper was published.The author of this article analyzed the data of the paper and concluded that the prevalence of infection was significantly lower in smokers than in nonsmokers!In addition, the author has arrogantly rendered various “benefits” brought by tobacco, such as treating skin diseases, migraines, mosquito bites, and even mass production of antimalarial drugs instead of Artemisia annua.It is understood that this article mainly intercepted a set of data from Academician Zhong Nanshan’s thesis: “According to clinical data, 927 of 1099 cases had no history of smoking, accounting for 85.4%; 21 cases had a history of smoking, accounting for 1.9%; Smoking and suffering from 137 cases, accounting for 12.6%. According to this, the author of the article came to the conclusion that “from a comparative analysis of data, it is clear that the infection rate of smokers is much lower than non-smokers!”In fact, Zhong Nanshan’s team’s paper did not mention any relationship between smoking and infection with new coronary pneumonia.Zhang Jianshu, president of the Beijing Tobacco Control Association, also said that Zhong Nanshan’s team’s thesis only classified smokers, non-smokers, and patients with a history of smoking.”Using a small sample of 137 smokers to analyze the relationship between smoking and infection with new coronary pneumonia, there is no statistical significance at all. Moreover, the article” Yao Shuo Yao said classroom “ignores the death of patients with lung disease in critically illThe fact that the rate is high. “Zhang Jianshu said,” This is a repeat of the old tricks of the tobacco industry. During the SARS period, rumors spread that SARS-infected people smoked less. This fallacy has been rejected. “During the epidemic, the publicTo write Zhong Nanshan’s trust and fear of virus infection, writing such an article to sell tobacco is purely rumorous and deceptive.As of now, the article has been deleted.The potential harms of smoking are not limited to these. In addition to being potentially susceptible to viruses, the harms of smoking are almost ubiquitous: 1. Tobacco smoke contains 69 known carcinogens. These carcinogens cause mutations in key genes in the body and grow normally.Imbalanced control mechanisms eventually lead to the development of cancerous cells and malignant tumors.Smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer.Compared with non-smokers, smokers have an average 4-10 times higher risk of developing lung cancer, and heavy smokers can reach 10-25 times.Smoking can also cause hundreds of cancers besides lung cancer, such as oral cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and so on.2. Smoking affects respiratory immune function and lung function, increasing the risk of chronic lung disease.3. Smoking can damage the function of vascular endothelium, which can lead to the occurrence of atherosclerosis, narrow the arterial vascular cavity, block the arterial blood flow, and cause a variety of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.4. Smoking can also cause type 2 diabetes and can increase the risk of major and microvascular complications in people with diabetes.5. Tobacco smoke contains a variety of harmful substances that can affect human reproductive and developmental functions.6. Not only is smoking unhealthy for smokers themselves, exposure to second-hand smoke also increases the risk of developing a variety of smoking-related diseases.Moreover, there is no so-called safe level of second-hand smoke exposure, and even short-term exposure to second-hand smoke can cause harm to human health.According to the 2012 China Health Report on the Harm of Smoking, China is the world’s largest tobacco producer and consumer. China has more than 300 million smokers, and about 740 million non-smokers are harmed by second-hand smoke..
Every year, the number of deaths caused by smoking-related diseases in China exceeds one million. If the epidemic situation of smoking is not controlled, the number of deaths will exceed 3 million per year by 2050, which will become an unbearable burden on people’s lives, health, and social and economic development.”Smoking is the first evil of disease.”For yourself and your family, please quit smoking decisively!The above content is only authorized for exclusive use by 39Health.com, please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright party.

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Does chewing betel nut increase the risk of esophageal cancer?

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Areca nuts are native to Malaysia. China is mainly distributed in tropical regions such as Yunnan, Hainan and Taiwan.Betel nut has been an important Chinese medicinal material since ancient times, and its main effect is “insect repellent, de-accumulation, lowering air, and water flow”, which is an insect repellent.In southern China, it is often sought after by everyone as a chewing hobby. It is even a custom to meet and respect betel nuts in some areas.According to statistics, the number of people chewing betel nut in China has reached 60 million, most of which are distributed in Hunan, Hainan, and Taiwan provinces.Why are betel nuts so popular?It originates from the chewing of betel nut people, who will consciously get excited and have a euphoria, and have a certain degree of addiction, which makes every enthusiast unable to stop.But are betel nuts really worth people to “get around”?Does betel nut increase people’s risk of esophageal cancer?In response to these questions, today we will make scientific and detailed answers one by one.Watch out!Betel nut is a first-class carcinogen. In fact, betel nut was identified as a first-class carcinogen by the International Cancer Research Center as early as 2003.In 2017, the State Drug Administration released a complete list of carcinogens, and betel nuts were also “gloriously on the list.”When betel nut pieces are chewed, they release a lot of strong carcinogens such as alkaloids, areca tannins, specific nitrosamines, and reactive oxygen species.These active ingredients and metabolites or betel nut chewing juice formed with saliva have strong cytotoxicity, can induce apoptosis of mucosal epithelial cells, and cause chronic inflammation.At present, chewing betel nut is the most important cause of fibrosis in the oral cavity.As a precancerous lesion, mucosal fibrosis can become cancerous after long-term chronic pathological changes.In the same way, the swallowed betel nut chewing juice will also be in close contact with the esophageal mucosa. The carcinogen-rich juice will permanently “wash and soak” the fragile esophageal mucosa epithelium, which will repeatedly stimulate long-term chronic inflammation damage, and then induce esophageal epithelium dysplasiaThe risk of cancer increased immediately.As the saying goes, “Betel nuts add smoke, the magic is boundless.” If smokers who try to quit smoking find an alternative of betel nuts, they can basically declare the plan a failure.Nicotine produced by smoking and active components such as arecoline produce a strong synergistic effect, which not only increases mental dependence, but also increases cytotoxic response, aggravates chronic mucosal damage, and increases the probability of canceration.Betel nut, this kind of “primary drug” that can’t be stopped, has seriously eroded people’s physical and mental health.Now is the time to declare war on this appetite.alert!These foods also increase the risk of esophageal cancer. It is not difficult to find that eating habits have an important impact on the occurrence of esophageal cancer.So, besides betel nut, what other foods or bad eating habits may induce esophageal cancer?First, long-term excessive consumption of red meat, processed meat, and preserved food red meat refers to the muscle tissue of large animals such as pigs, cattle, sheep, and horses. For convenience, people often use marinated, smoked and other methods to process them..Processed meat foods with added nitrates and nitrites have been classified as “a class of carcinogens” by the World Health Organization.Red meat and processed meat contain a large amount of heme, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and nitrosamines; preserved foods contain a large amount of nitrosamines, which have strong carcinogenic effects.Since the 1970s, the incidence of esophageal cancer has been extremely high in the central and northern regions of China. Early investigations have found that residents of these high-incidence areas usually like to eat pickled vegetables and meat. Nitrate and nitrite in foodThe salt content is relatively high, and the water source is also polluted by nitrate nitrogen.To reduce or avoid the intake of carcinogenic chemicals such as nitrosamines, it is necessary to eat as little red meat, preserved meat and pickled vegetables as possible.Second, we have long known that eating moldy food and untreated water sources more or less will produce toxins that may cause liver cancer.And moldy food is also one of the factors that induce esophageal cancer.Grain is easy to be contaminated by mold when harvested and stored; edible oil is prolonged to be contaminated by Aspergillus flavus; white vegetables can grow if not kept well.Although the living standards of all households have now improved, food may still be contaminated with mold by accident.The investigation also found that there is a high concentration of nitrate nitrogen in well water species in high-incidence areas. In the early days, residents also had a bad habit of drinking untreated clean water, ditch pond water, and other unclean water. There was a large amount of mold and toxins in these waters.Long-term consumption of these mycotoxins-containing water and foods increases the risk of esophageal cancer to some extent.Third, studies of consuming too little fresh fruits and vegetables have shown that the deficiency of trace elements selenium, zinc, folic acid and vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin B2 and vitamin B12 in foods is associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer.And eating fresh vegetables and fruits and reasonable weight control have a protective role in the development of esophageal cancer.Reasonable diet, intake of appropriate trace elements and vitamins from fresh vegetables and fruits can maintain human health and is a good habit to prevent esophageal cancer.Fourth, frequent consumption of foods that are too hot and too rough, and that foods that are too hot and too rough pass through the esophagus and contact the mucous membranes, can burn the esophageal mucosa epithelium, causing damage, ulceration, bleeding, etc.Long-term and frequent consumption of foods that are too hot and too rough can cause continuous damage to the esophageal mucosa, and lead to chronic esophagitis and esophageal hyperplasia. These are the early changes in the esophageal epithelium to malignant transformation.At the same time, don’t gobble up, don’t eat too fast, and avoid swallowing fish bones, poultry and bones.These hard bone spurs will pierce the esophagus wall and make the wound difficult to heal for a while. The repeated stimulation of esophageal mucosa by food and reflux gastric acid will also increase the risk of esophageal cancer..

Fifth, smoking, drinking, smoking and drinking are also risk factors for esophageal cancer.As acetaldehyde produced by alcohol metabolism is a carcinogen, and due to the specificity of genes, about 40% of the Chinese population has a poor detoxification capacity for acetaldehyde. Therefore, the Chinese population who drink moderately or severely suffer from esophageal cancer.Smoking may be accompanied by drinking to promote the occurrence and development of tumors.In short, as long as we can pay attention in daily life, avoiding the above-mentioned bad eating habits can prevent esophageal cancer to a certain extent.In addition, strengthening physical exercise, controlling weight, and improving physical fitness are also important.Once discomfort occurs, you should go to the hospital in time, the sooner the treatment is, the more hopeful it will be.

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Have a tumor, do n’t worry, see if it ’s benign or malignant

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If a tumor is detected, everyone will be scared, not only the pain of the tumor and the haze of death, but also the cost of treating the tumor.In fact, don’t rush to a conclusion when being diagnosed with a tumor.First, it is true whether the tumor is benign or malignant.Benign and malignant tumors have very different growth rates. Benign tumors grow slowly.In general, there is no sustained rapid growth or spread over a long period of time.Patients need only be treated promptly under the guidance of a doctor.Malignant tumors grow very fast and are prone to spread and endanger other organs.Harm range Benign tumors are only locally harmful and have little harm to the body.It is generally not possible to cause death if it is not grown in a critical location.Malignant tumors may appear to metastasize, which is likely to cause great harm to the human body, which may affect the whole body. Failure to seek medical treatment in time may lead to death.Mass morphology Generally speaking, the morphology of benign tumors is fixed, and the overall boundary is obvious.The boundaries of malignant tumors are blurred, with severe pain.Treatment methods For benign tumors, doctors can remove the lesion by surgery to restore the patient’s health and the chance of recurrence is very low.For malignant tumors, doctors need to develop a set of treatment plans for patients based on multiple conditions.Removal of tumors with light surgery is often not ideal.If it is diagnosed as a benign tumor, it is easier to treat and the prognosis is good.Next, let us introduce common benign tumors.Common benign tumors: Uterine fibroids Uterine fibroids are a common benign tumor of female genitals, also known as fibroids and uterine fibroids.The disease is mainly caused by muscle changes in the uterus, and uterine bleeding is one of the common symptoms of uterine fibroids.Lipoma Lipoma is a common benign tumor.Lipomas can occur in any part of the body where there is fat.Breast fibroma Breast fibroma is a common benign tumor of the breast. It is a benign tumor composed of a mixture of glandular epithelium and fibrous tissue. It occurs in young women and is related to the imbalance of sex hormones in patients.If you are diagnosed with a tumor, don’t panic, it is indeed a benign or malignant tumor.No matter what kind of tumor, we should actively cooperate with doctors to fight for an early recovery.

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Sex hormone disorders, or ovarian problems!

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Female friends’ life is getting more and more stressful, which will make them have no time to take care of their own physical conditions. At this time, many diseases will come in. Ovarian cancer is a common disease that threatens women’s health.To be treated in time, only when you understand the early symptoms of ovarian cancer can you notice and treat them in time. So, what are the early symptoms of ovarian cancer?Let’s take a look at the following introduction together.Early symptoms of ovarian cancer 1. Backache and abdominal pain: After getting ovarian cancer, female patients will have backache and back pain, because early stage ovarian cancer will cause tumor growth due to tumor growth. Failure to treat in time will lead to adhesions around the ovarian tissue.This phenomenon causes backache and abdominal pain, which makes the patient very painful.2. Lower limb and vulvar edema: For patients with ovarian cancer, lower limb and vulvar edema will also occur. In the initial stage, ovarian tumors will increase, which will compress the patient’s pelvic vein and cause blood obstruction.Symptoms, lymphatic reflux is hindered, and eventually edema of the lower limbs and vulva occurs.3. Disorders of sex hormones: Disorders of sex hormones are also one of the common symptoms of ovarian cancer. There are many reasons for inducing ovarian cancer, and the causes are very complicated, and many tissues and organs are involved. Ovarian cancer will cause some hormones to fluctuate.Large, so there is a disorder of sex hormones.4. Low menstrual flow and menopause: When women have ovarian cancer, they usually have symptoms such as low menstrual flow and menopause. However, most patients do not experience irregular menstruation, but if they are not treated in time, the tumor will be slow.Slowly increase, at this time the function of the ovaries will gradually decrease, if cancer cells spread, it may affect the ovarian tissue structure.At this time, the patient’s menstrual volume will be less and less, and severe menopause will occur.What are the early symptoms of ovarian cancer?Experts remind that if female friends find that they have the early symptoms of ovarian cancer described above, they must go to a regular hospital for examination and treatment in a timely manner. Once diagnosed, they must actively cooperate with the treatment to effectively extend their lives.

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Stomach pain is not a trivial matter, three manifestations or tips for advanced gastric cancer

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Once the disease of gastric cancer has reached the advanced stage, there will be many painful symptoms, but when the disease has not yet spread in the advanced stage, there is still hope for treatment. Therefore, some patients with more severe gastric cancer want to know if there will be advanced gastric cancer.What are the symptoms, so let ’s talk with you today to see what are the advanced symptoms of gastric cancer?One of the symptoms of advanced gastric cancer: vomiting blood. Gastric cancer will still have gastric bleeding in the advanced stage, and the amount of bleeding is much more than in the middle period. Patients with advanced gastric cancer will not spit some bloodshot with food when they bleed.If you have vomiting blood, if symptoms occur, you must go to the hospital for treatment immediately. You must also take good care during the treatment. You ca n’t eat any hard food.Symptoms of advanced gastric cancer: organ failure After gastric cancer reaches the advanced stage, it will cause complications of other organs. The first thing that occurs is the lungs. There will be a severe cough, and there will be chest tightness and shortness of breath.It is a symptom that represents the beginning of lung failure. As the condition worsens, the condition of organ failure will become more and more serious, so when gastric symptoms are accompanied by other symptoms, gastric cancer has begun to spread or has reached the edge of spread.Symptoms of advanced gastric cancer: stool bleeding from the middle of gastric cancer will occur in the stool, but at that time only blood and stool would like to mix, not how much bleeding, but in the late stage, when the stool will be directly pulled out bright redBlood, if not used in a timely manner, or if chemotherapy is used to stabilize the disease, even if it is not fatal, and anemia and sepsis will occur.The early symptoms of gastric cancer are relatively insidious. Patients often treat their original gastritis without paying attention to it in time.I hope that all my friends can do their own stomach care, pay attention to the reasonableness of diet, pay attention not to eat spicy food often, and do not always smoke and drink. Keeping stomach diseases away from your life is the best way to prevent gastric cancer..

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3 questions and 3 answers, directly address the hot issues of lung nodules and lung cancer patients in the epidemic

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Since December 2019, a new type of coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 2019-nCoV pneumonia) infection found in Wuhan, Hubei has spread throughout the country and in many parts of the world.As of February 17, 2020, there were more than 70,000 confirmed cases in China, with a total of 805 confirmed cases in 25 other countries.Whether it is an outpatient or online consultation, more and more patients with lung nodules and lung cancer are not able to go to the hospital for treatment in time, full of anxiety and tension, and asking many questions.These questions are roughly divided into three categories: ①How to distinguish whether the ground-glass nodules are new coronary inflammation or malignant nodules?② Can the pulmonary nodule surgery previously scheduled for hospitalization be postponed?③ Can the time of follow-up visits after lung cancer, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted therapy be postponed or can be treated at the local hospital?I will answer them one by one below.Question 1: How to identify ground glass shadow and plaque shadow in lung?磨 Glass ground shadow or ground glass nodule CT, especially high-resolution CT (HRCT) is the main diagnosis in the National Health and Health Commission’s “Pneumonitis Diagnosis and Treatment Program for New Coronavirus Infection” (trial version 5)Means, of which “clinical diagnosis” cases are based on CT findings as an important diagnostic basis.At present, the imaging characteristics of new coronavirus pneumonia have been reported. The most common manifestation under HRCT is ground glass opacity (GGO), which accounts for about 55% to 86%.As an imaging concept, GGO shows a slight increase in density and a cloud-like density shadow, but the bronchial and blood vessel textures can still be displayed.Pulmonary nodules and ground glass nodules (GGO) are the more common cases in thoracic surgery clinics.The early imaging manifestations of the new coronavirus pneumonia were mainly ground glass shadows, and early ground glass nodules of lung cancer also showed ground glass shadows or ground glass nodules.How to distinguish between the two?Early CT manifestations of new coronavirus pneumonia are: single or multiple vitreous-density nodules, patches, or flaky shadows, which are mainly distributed in the posterior or peripheral parts of the lungs on CT. Localized lesions appear as patches.It is mainly distributed in shape, subsegment or segment.Although the early lesions are limited, most of them are large patches, mainly multifocal lesions, which usually progress significantly within 7 days after the lesions are found.Ground-glass nodules in early lung cancer: Although they also show ground-glass nodules or ground-glass nodules, the location of the lesions is lacking. Generally, patients with no obvious absorption or increase after 2 to 3 months of follow-up can consider grinding.Glass nodules in early lung cancer.In addition to GGO, new coronavirus pneumonia pneumonia can also be shown on CT with paving stones sign, bilateral lung patchy GGO with segmental consolidation, diffuse lung GGO with bronchial inflation, and large area consolidation of both lungsShadow accompanied by thickened leaflet interstitial.The above image features are closely related to the course of the patient.The distribution and extent of lesions in early lung tumors usually do not have significant imaging features of new coronavirus pneumonia. Other studies have found that the solid components of the lesions and the morphology of the lesions such as lobulation signs, traction signs, and pleural depression usually indicate the possibility of early lung tumorsAt the same time, the bronchus truncation sign, small air bubbles, and vascular bundle sign on CT also indicate that the lesion is more likely to be malignant.Early lung GGO-like tumors usually progress slowly, and morphological changes under CT monitoring usually take years or more.Other diseases that need to be identified: ★ Ground glass shadow formed by hemoptysis in the lung: These patients have a recent history of pulmonary hemoptysis, and pulmonary hemorrhage can be expressed as ground glass shadow.★ Radiation pneumonia formed after radiotherapy: These patients have a recent history of chest or neck radiotherapy for 2 to 3 months.★ Exogenous lipid pneumonia: These patients have a history of inhalation of exogenous lipids without significant fever.★ Immune pneumonia: Patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (mainly PD-1 inhibitors in China), some patients develop immune pneumonia after PD-1 treatment, clinical manifestations and imaging characteristics are present and new coronavirus pneumoniaThe infections are very similar, and in such cases, especially in the absence of fever, a strict differential diagnosis is required.If the diagnosis is neo-coronary pneumonia, it is divided into early, advanced, and severe stages. Being in early and advanced stages often needs to be distinguished from immune pneumonia.Generally speaking, new coronary pneumonia usually has the following four characteristics: the patient is in Hubei or Wuhan or related exposure history; in addition to fever, it may also be combined with respiratory cough and belching symptoms; physical symptoms, such as fatigue, etc .; and finally nucleic acid testing is required.A positive diagnosis.★ Ground glass caused by other viral pneumonia: including influenza virus, cytomegalovirus, etc.At present, it is also the season of high incidence of influenza. At the current specific time point, if there are imaging manifestations such as exudation, consolidation, and nodules in the lungs, it is necessary to exclude common influenza, mycoplasma and bacteria, and then follow theCoronary virus-infected pneumonia diagnosis and treatment plan (trial implementation of the fifth edition) “standards, combined with epidemiological history and clinical characteristics, to perform a descriptive radiological diagnosis, and the final diagnosis requires nucleic acid testing for pathogenicity.▍ Lung mass shadow with patch shadow Lung cancer, tuberculosis, fungal infections, lung cysts, bacterial infections, etc. can be manifested as lung mass shadows, with or without patch shadows.Pneumonia in advanced or severe stage is also manifested as patchy or consolidation shadows in the lung. For patients with clear clump or patchy shadows in the lung, if there is suspicious imaging manifestation of pneumonia, try to avoid invasive percutaneous lungA puncture or bronchoscopy is performed to spread the immune status.Question 2: Can surgery be postponed for patients with pulmonary nodules who are scheduled for hospitalization?The spread of the new coronavirus pneumonia epidemic has brought great challenges to our clinical practice in thoracic surgery.Surgery indications are strictly controlled during the epidemic period, and elective surgery is postponed. For example, patients with pure ground glass nodules or nodules that are regularly observed will consider postponing surgery, strengthen online consultation, and reduce the frequency of follow-up. Patients who plan to undergo limited-term surgery, such as confirmed diagnosisPatients with lung cancer, or those with solid nodules ≥ 10mm who are considered malignant. These patients need to be isolated for 2 weeks and have a negative nucleic acid test before surgery. At the same time, due to the epidemic, less blood donation is often required, and family members need to help each other to donate blood.For emergency surgery patients, nucleic acid testing should be carried out before surgery, and three-level protective treatment should be performed during surgery.Strictly carry out surgical disinfection and isolation measures.Among postoperative patients, cases with new coronavirus infection were actively investigated.In the rescue of patients with new coronavirus infection, attention needs to be paid to prevention and treatment, and treatment of related complications, including mechanical ventilation-related pneumothorax or mediastinal emphysema, and injury after tracheal intubation.Question 3: Can the post-treatment time for lung cancer, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy be postponed or can it be treated at the local hospital?Due to the systemic immunosuppressive status of cancer patients due to the malignant tumor itself and cancer treatment such as chemotherapy and surgery, the risk of infection with neocoronary pneumonia and poor prognosis after infection will increase.”The Lancet · Tumor” published online data on cancer patients infected with new coronary pneumonia, which was jointly analyzed by the National Health and Health Commission and the He Jianxing team of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College.Of the 1,590 patients with neo-coronary pneumonia, 18 (1%) had a history of cancer, which is higher than the general incidence of cancer in the Chinese general population.Most importantly, cancer patients have a higher risk of serious events than patients without cancer.Therefore, stronger personal protection should be provided for cancer patients and cancer survivors.Regardless of postoperative lung cancer, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted treatment, because Fengcheng and the hospital restrict the admission of patients, if the time for re-examination is reached, a delay of 2 weeks is acceptable; patients who need to delay for more than 2 weeksIt is recommended to treat in the local hospital, or you can contact other hospitals with the ability to treat, and implement it according to the plan made by the original doctor in charge.At the same time, in order to strengthen humanistic care, some cities are also considering opening prescriptions for targeted drugs for 60 days..
In addition, for patients participating in clinical trials, online attention should be paid to sending medicines as much as possible.Therefore, cancer patients under new coronary pneumonia are still prevention-oriented, delay treatment appropriately and strengthen personal protection.May every cancer patient go through this difficult period safely.The above content is only authorized for exclusive use by 39Health.com, please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright party.

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Researchers find new mechanism to promote breast cancer

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A new method to study the effects of two commonly used chemicals in cosmetics and sunscreens has found that they cause damage to the DNA of breast cells at low concentrations, while the same dose does not cause damage to cells without estrogen receptorshurt.The study was recently published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. A team led by Joseph Jerry, a professor of animal science and veterinary medicine at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, discovered an estrogen and an exogenous estrogen (a kind ofEnvironmental chemicals of hormones) may promote new mechanisms of breast cancer.Jerry also serves as the Scientific Director of the Pioneer Valley Life Sciences Institute, and works with Massachusetts State University Amherst and Baystate Medical Center as co-director of the Light of Hope Breast Cancer Research Center.Jerry explained: “This new study provides a more sensitive tool for screening for potentially harmful effects of environmental chemicals, and methods currently used may ignore this.” He noted that federal agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration ((FDA), and these chemicals are usually screened for toxicity in cell lines without estrogen receptors.Two compounds detected in laboratory cultured cells and mouse mammary glands are the UV filter benzophenone-3 (BP-3), also known as oxyphenone, and propyl phenyl ester (PP), one inAntibacterial preservatives found in cosmetics and other personal care products.Jerry emphasized that more research is needed to determine what this finding means for consumer guidelines.”Benzophenone-3 is an effective sunscreen. If you use it, you can prevent skin cancer. Am I saying that you should not use sunscreen? I am not. But there are some people who may face serious risks”Jerry said, such as those at high risk for breast cancer or patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.Previous studies on the effects of BP-3 and PP have focused on the amount of exposure required to activate specific genes in cancer cells or accelerate their growth.”These effects require concentrations that exceed levels normally encountered by most women,” Jerry said.But new research shows that the DNA damage of breast cells containing estrogen receptors is only 1/10 to 1/30 of the concentration needed to stimulate proliferation or gene expression.”The level of risk may be lower than we have known before,” Jerry said. Jerry and his colleagues decided to study whether PP and BP-3 have estrogen effects at concentrations related to population exposure, because “we know that estrogen willPromote breast cancer, “Jerry said.”Unless a cell has an estrogen receptor, it is non-toxic,” he said.”So it does this damage through the estrogen receptor. If you test it in other cells, there will be no consequences.” The above content is authorized for exclusive use by 39HealthNet only, please do not reprint without authorization of the copyright party.

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Article at a Glance: Common Symptoms of Tumors

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01 Localized mass: The most common complaint can occur in any part of the body.Such as the surface of the skin, soft tissues, breasts, testes or nasal cavity, anus, lower rectum and upper clavicle, axillary, groin and lymphadenopathy.When examining the mass, pay attention to its location, size, shape, boundary, hardness, whether the surface is smooth, mobility, tenderness, temperature, and whether there is vascular noise.Obstruction symptoms: more common in gastrointestinal tumors of the respiratory tract, often due to laryngeal cancer, tongue root cancer or bronchial lung cancer, and esophagus, gastrointestinal tumors cause patients to report difficulty breathing, swallowing pain, abdominal discomfort (abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, bowel sounds, constipationSymptoms of compression: mediastinal tumors compress the superior vena cava to cause swelling of the head, neck, and face, thoracic vein bloating, thyroid cancer compressing the esophagus and trachea, and recurrent laryngeal nerve and abdominal tumors compressing the ureter, resulting in difficulty in eating and breathing, hoarseness or urinary retention, and difficulty urinating.Damage to organ structure and function: Most are caused by invasion and invasion of malignant tumors, such as bone tumors destroying bone joints themselves, craniocerebral tumors cause corresponding neurological symptoms, and other organ tumors such as lungs, livers, and kidneys affect their own functions. Pain: common in patientsOne of the main complaints is that there is generally no pain. When the tumor develops to a certain extent, it causes nerve compression or the capsule is caused by too fast growth, which is mostly dull pain. However, when the gastrointestinal tumor blocks the cavity and causes obstruction, it can also cause severe pain.Compression of nerves can cause intractable pain, which can also cause bone pain when transferred to bones and other places.Pathological secretion: It is more common in tumors in organs such as oropharynx, digestive tract, respiratory tract, and urogenital tract. It often ruptures or co-infects into the cavity, and discharges bloody, purulent, or sticky rancid secretions. Some may have important implications.Such as nasopharyngeal cancer often sputum, lung cancer can hemoptysis, urinary tract tumors may have hematuria, rectal cancer has bloody stools and so on.Ulcers: It is common in skin tumors, mucous membranes, oral cavity, and nasopharyngeal cavity. It is also common in tumors of the digestive tract, vagina, and cervix. The infections often occur in the above-mentioned masses.02 Fever throughout the body: It is more common in malignant lymphoma, lung cancer, osteosarcoma, gastric cancer, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer or advanced patients, especially hematological tumors.Thermal type performance is different, mostly continuous low heat, but continuous high heat or relaxation heat can also occur.Its fever mechanism often includes “endogenous pyrogens” caused by tumors, body reactions caused by hemorrhage and necrosis, and infections.Progressive weight loss, anemia, and fatigue: mostly symptoms of advanced patients, especially patients with esophagus, stomach, liver, and colon tumors. Malnutrition is often caused by eating difficulties, digestive and absorption disorders, and competition for tumor growth and nutrition, which can lead to cachexia..Jaundice: The most common pancreatic tumor or hepatobiliary tumor, often caused by excessive cholestasis caused by tumor compression or bile duct obstruction. When patients complain of jaundice, they should first consider the tumors of the pancreatic head, the lower end of the common bile duct, the bile ducts or the duodenal papillamay.03 Tumor-associated syndrome: Some biologically active biological substances produced by tumors often trigger a group of systemic clinical symptoms in patients. The specific manifestations are related to the type of tumor and growth. It is also called para-cancer syndrome or distant septum of tumor.effect.1) Skin and connective tissue: pruritus, acanthosis dermatitis, dermatomyositis, erythema erythematosus, herpes zoster 2) Hyperplasia of bone and joints of pulmonary origin: club-shaped fingers, pulmonary arthropathy, periostitis, and male breast hypertrophy) Nervous system: polymyositis, peripheral neuritis, myasthenic syndrome 4) Cardiovascular: walking thrombophlebitis, nonbacterial thromboendocarditis 5) endocrine and metabolism: increased cortisol, highCalcium, Hypoglycemia, Hyperglycemia, Carcinoid Syndrome 6) Blood System: Red Blood Cells, Leukemia-Like Reaction, Fibrinolytic Purpura, Thrombocytopenia Warning Signs for Top Ten Tumors 1) Touchable masses in any part of the body(Such as breast, skin, tongue, lymph nodes, etc.) 2) Skin warts (neoplastic tumors) or moles change significantly (such as darkening, rapid enlargement, itching, hair loss, exudation, ulcers and bleeding) 3) Persistent indigestionOr repeated gastrointestinal discomfort 4) Stomach sensation, pain, swelling and discomfort after sternum, foreign body sensation in the esophagus, or epigastric pain 5) Tinnitus, hearing loss, stuffy nose, nosebleeds, aspiration coughNasopharyngeal secretions with blood, headaches, and neck masses 6) Unusual major bleeding during menstruation, irregular vaginal bleeding outside or after menstruation, contact bleeding 7) Persistent hoarseness, dry cough, blood in sputum 8) Unexplained stool with blood and mucus or diarrhea, constipation alternately, unexplained hematuria.
9) Long-lasting wounds and ulcers 10) Unexplained long-term weight loss The above content is only authorized for exclusive use by 39Health.com, please do not reprint without authorization of the copyright party

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CANCER

Super full Raiders!

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The unexpected new coronary pneumonia has changed all the diagnosis and treatment paths. For a time, medical work other than epidemic prevention has been greatly impacted.In order to effectively prevent the spread of new coronary pneumonia, we must invest limited medical resources into the war against new coronary pneumonia, which will undoubtedly prevent many cancer patients from undergoing radical surgery for tumor surgery as originally planned. Patients and their families may notUnderstand why this is so and for a reason.1 When the epidemic is not controlled, there will be a large number of latent virus carriers. Once the carriers have undergone surgery or come to take care of visiting surgical patients, there is a great chance that the surgical patients’ immune system will be reduced after surgery.infection.Once infected, the condition will worsen and mortality will increase.This article records the true story of a patient who died from a small nodule after being infected with a new coronavirus.2 Once the carrier of the virus has undergone surgery, it may cause contamination in the operating room and infection by medical personnel, which will lead to serious iatrogenic cross infection and great harm!3 At present, the conditions in domestic hospitals generally do not meet the single-person ward. Multiple surgical patients are in the same ward, and one person is infected or carries the virus. The ward will have contagious transmission, which is extremely harmful!And there are already such reports!4 During the epidemic, citizens ’blood donation almost stopped, and blood sources were extremely scarce. It was even difficult to ensure anti-epidemic, let alone to provide protection for elective and limited-term surgery.Without blood, the safety of patients during surgery cannot be guaranteed. If a patient dies due to lack of blood supply during surgery, I believe that neither the medical staff nor the family members will accept it.Despite so many reasons, not being able to perform surgery will still make many patients and their families anxious, anxiety and fear come together, and various problems will follow.”I have already confirmed the diagnosis and need surgery as soon as possible!” “Will the tumor grow up quickly or even metastasize, and miss the best time for treatment?” “My chemotherapy has been postponed for a week, and the results will be different!”… What can we do for you oncology patients who need surgery?Can we really just sit back and wait?Is there no way to help the patient?Of course not. We have compiled a comprehensive guide for different cancer patients. They are divided into “Breast, Thyroid Tumor”, “Liver and Pancreas Tumor” and “Gastrointestinal Tumor”, hoping to help.The recommendations in this article are based on the patient’s exclusion of neocoronavirus infections (confirmed or suspected cases should be treated according to epidemic prevention requirements); recommendations for confirmed cases only.Breast and thyroid tumors Malignant tumors of the breast and thyroid are a class of diseases that have a good effect on treatment.There are various treatments for breast cancer. Although surgery is the first choice for breast cancer, there are many other methods to temporarily control the development of tumors.The development of thyroid cancer is even slower. Most patients delay surgery for 2-3 months and have less impact on the prognosis. There is no need to rush to perform surgery in this high-risk period.For breast and thyroid tumors, the following aspects must be clarified before treatment: pathological classification of the tumor, whether there is metastasis, to determine the general clinical situation of the patient’s physical condition, and how strong the treatment can be expected, Usually requires multiple checks.Before the start time of the next treatment is clear, you can contact the doctor in charge, arrange the time reasonably, complete the necessary examinations in the outpatient center, and prepare for the next step of tumor treatment.Specific to each type of tumor patients, we also have some targeted suggestions to share with you!Breast cancer Breast cancer is the highest incidence of cancer in women, but the cure rate is very high (the average five-year survival rate is reported to be above 85% in the literature). It can be seen that most breast cancers grow relatively slowly, so appropriate delays in surgery and treatment will notLead to a significant difference in prognosis.In the special period of the epidemic, we recommend: 1. Maintaining communication with the doctor in charge, fully trusting the doctor’s judgment and grasp of the condition, the patients who have not been diagnosed can complete the relevant examinations, and those who have been diagnosed can complete the other evaluations required before treatment.Reasonably arrange the inspection time, pay attention to protection during the inspection, and avoid cross-infection situations such as multiple visits to the hospital; 2. Highly suspicious patients can perform preoperative puncture and other examinations in conditional departments to confirm the diagnosis. Pathological examinations often requireWait for a long time (about 7-14 days), you can use the epidemic prevention and control to reduce the flow of people and wait for pathology; 3. If the diagnosis has been confirmed, but due to objective conditions, surgery can not be performed in the near future, patients with suitable pathology types can be usedPreoperative adjuvant therapy (that is, to advance the postoperative treatment reasonably to preoperative surgery), such as chemotherapy, endocrine therapy or targeted therapy, can evaluate the therapeutic effect of these drugs while achieving disease control, and can be used as follow-up treatmentMedication reference for timely adjustment.At the same time, it can improve the radical cure rate and breast conservation rate of breast cancer.4. If the patients who have started chemotherapy can not perform on time, they can choose the nearest treatment or delay the treatment appropriately; for the discomfort during the intermittent period of chemotherapy, they can improve the basic examination and take corresponding treatment nearby, and consider online consultation or telephone contact when it is not convenient to travelDoctors can solve most common problems and avoid staff turnover.Thyroid cancer More than 90% of the pathological types of thyroid cancer are papillary thyroid carcinoma. This is a relatively inert tumor. The probability of early distant metastasis is very low, especially for tumors less than 1 cm in diameter. It is called a microthyroid papilla.In addition to surgery, some patients can also be treated conservatively by close observation.Therefore, during the special period of the epidemic, patients who meet the conditions for small cancer can temporarily not need to rush to surgery and adjust the treatment strategy in time according to the review situation during the close observation process.If it is a serious thyroid tumor, you can consider to seek medical treatment as soon as possible in combination with the following conditions: 1. If the thyroid gland is too large to compress the airway and cause breathing difficulties, emergency medical treatment is preferred to ensure airway patency.2. Patients with severe hyperthyroidism can seek medical control in the endocrinology department and prepare for follow-up surgery to avoid serious surgical complications such as thyroid crisis during surgery; 3. Those with systemic metastases and symptoms,Visiting oncology department should respond to treatment to control tumor progression and improve symptoms.Although breast and thyroid malignancies are diseases that can be treated for a limited period of time, there may be emergencies that require emergency treatment: lumbar vertebra bone metastases cause lumbar vertebra fractures, causing low back pain and paraplegia; tumor brain metastases can cause increased intracranial pressure, paralysis, etc.If such a situation occurs, it is best to contact an ambulance to transfer to the nearest clinic.Hepatobiliary and pancreatic tumors Hepatobiliary and pancreatic tumors are fast-developing and highly malignant, and they are all unbearable tumors. Delays of two to three weeks may cause great changes in the condition.In addition, the operations of hepatobiliary and pancreatic tumors are difficult and large, with high risk of surgery, large trauma, and many perioperative complications, which have a great impact on the patient’s body and a significant decrease in the postoperative patient’s immunity.What about patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic tumors during this particular period?What to do?We have summarized several suggestions for your reference: Liver tumors 1. Benign tumors: including hemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), and liver cysts.It is not necessary to come to the hospital for treatment at this time, and the extension of half a year and one year will not affect the patient!Of course, except for emergency cases, such as rupture and bleeding, infection abscess, and so on.2. Malignant tumors: such as liver cancer, interventional therapy + targeted drug treatment can be performed first to treat and control the development of the tumor; targeted drugs can be selected sorafenib, lovatinib, or regofini.For intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, interventional therapy is not effective, and systemic chemotherapy or + targeted therapy can be selected first.Biliary tumors (biliary cancer and gallbladder cancer) 1. Biliary tumors usually cause obstructive jaundice due to bile duct obstruction. The primary work is to clear the biliary tract. Methods include endoscopic ERCP or PTCD to place biliary stent to relieve jaundice and restore liver.Features.It takes about 2-3 weeks.Of course, many hospitals have suspended endoscopy and treatment due to epidemic prevention, and PTCD intervention has become the best choice.2. If surgery is not available after 2-3 weeks, you can first perform chemotherapy before surgery (also called neoadjuvant chemotherapy) according to the liver function and physical condition of the patient.Generally you can do 4-6 courses, which takes about 2-3 months.Pancreatic tumor (pancreatic cancer or pancreatic endocrine tumor) 1. Obstructive jaundice similar to bile duct cancer will appear in the tumor of the pancreatic head. First, ERCP or PTCD will reduce the yellowness and restore liver function.2. For the pancreatic head cancer or pancreatic body and tail cancer that has been reduced in yellow, the pre-operative chemotherapy + surgical resection + post-operative chemotherapy have received more and more attention and recognition at home and abroad, in the United States, Europe, Japan, etc.In the country, preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy has become the preferred method of pancreatic cancer.Some patients and their families have suggested what to do if tumor progression occurs during chemotherapy.A large number of foreign studies have confirmed that pancreatic cancer that is not sensitive to chemotherapy has extremely poor postoperative results. Patients with the best surgical effect can be selected through effective chemotherapy.What should I do if I have an old tumor patient?For patients who have undergone surgery, postoperative review is still important, but after all, there are too many patients in the top three hospitals, and even the waiting time in queues will increase the risk of infection with the new crown.Therefore, if conditions permit, you can choose to complete the various tests and imaging inspections at the local hospital non-new crown designated hospital. After the results are obtained, contact the attending doctor and submit the test results to the attending doctor via online means (WeChat, online medical consultation platform, etc.)To complete the follow-up examination and evaluation.Gastrointestinal tumors Gastrointestinal tumors are more common digestive system tumors. As the tumor grows, symptoms of blood in the stool, black stools, or gastrointestinal obstruction will occur, and local and distant metastases will appear.After the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors, patients should consult a specialist oncologist to determine the pathological type and stage of the tumor. At the same time, a comprehensive examination is performed in the outpatient clinic to evaluate the patient’s physical condition to determine the next treatment plan.Under normal circumstances, the combination of surgery and chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy is preferred.But how should patients with gastrointestinal tumors spend this period during the special period of the new crown outbreak?We have summarized several treatment suggestions and tips for your reference: Gastric cancer can be eaten normally without gastric bleeding, and the patient’s physical condition and various laboratory indicators can be given neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which is performed before surgeryChemotherapy, usually 3 courses of treatment, the time is about 2-3 months.By chemotherapy, the lesion can be reduced.If there is metastasis, it may shrink and disappear the metastatic lymph nodes and reduce the stage of gastric cancer.Recommended regimen: tigiog / capecitabine + oxaliplatin, combined use.If you cannot come to the hospital for an infusion, you can take a single-agent chemotherapy regimen at home, such as tigio or capecitabine.If colorectal cancer can defecate normally and physical conditions allow, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is also recommended to effectively control and treat the tumor, waiting for this special period to pass.Commonly used is FOLFOX combined with chemotherapy, or other chemotherapy schemes are designed according to the specific pathological type and stage.Rectal cancer is usually neoadjuvant chemoradiation. If chemotherapy is used alone, consider FOLFOX as the chemotherapy regimen. If you cannot come to the hospital for infusion treatment, you can take a single dose of capecitabine at home.Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors For gastrointestinal stromal tumors, due to their slow development, they can be treated with targeted drugs (such as imatinib mesylate) to control tumor progression.Benign gastrointestinal tumors such as intestinal polyps can continue to observe and wait. No chemotherapy is needed during the observation period, and no urgent surgery is needed.Preoperative chemotherapy regimen and dose The specific chemotherapy regimen and dose are adjusted by the doctor according to the patient’s pathology and stage.However, in order to avoid multiple visits to the hospital to increase the chance of infection, oral chemotherapeutics at home should be mainly used, and whether to be combined with intravenous infusion chemotherapy should be decided according to the hospital and hospital conditions.If the patient’s physical condition is poor, or the side effects of chemotherapy are severe, and the chemotherapy cannot be tolerated, the above treatment is not recommended.The following cases require emergency treatment at the hospital. If the patient has vomiting blood, black stools, nausea, vomiting, inability to eat, not ventilate or defecate, severe abdominal pain, tumor rupture or perforation of the digestive tract, obstruction, etc. during chemotherapy or observationCan not continue to wait, should immediately come to the emergency department for surgery.The above is our summary of the plans for tumor patients who need surgery. Because of special periods and special circumstances, we can only make temporary alternatives and remedies based on previous experience and data.Hope to bring help to the majority of patients and their families, and we would like to work together to spend this period!Kind reminder 1. The recommended measures are temporary replacement and conservative treatment during the new coronavirus period, and do not represent the standard tumor treatment plan. Once the epidemic situation is controlled, you should immediately come to the hospital to adjust the treatment plan.2. Patients must also take personal protection while at home, pay attention to diet and keep warm.3. The patient’s care should be provided by a person at home to prevent the patient from coming into contact with too much or any suspicious cold and fever of relatives and friends.4. During the period of oral chemotherapeutic drugs, patients should have regular outpatient hematological examinations to monitor the side effects of chemotherapy, such as anemia, decreased white blood cells, and abnormal blood clotting.If you continue to get worse, you may need to stop taking chemotherapy drugs.5. During chemotherapy, the patient’s resistance will decrease and increase the chance of infection. Therefore, except for the necessary physical examination, avoid going to the hospital. Outpatient drugs should be collected by family members..
6. Patients should also undergo imaging examinations (CT or MRI) on a regular outpatient basis to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy drugs on tumors.If the tumor is found to continue to grow during chemotherapy, the chemotherapy regimen may need to be adjusted again.7. If the patient has any abnormal sensation or discomfort during the medication, he can contact the doctor in time through the network platform, and the doctor can determine the further treatment plan.The above content is only authorized for exclusive use by 39Health.com, please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright party.

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CANCER

Ateliuzumab, an innovative tumor immune drug, is officially approved in China

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On February 13, 2020, China’s State Drug Administration officially approved Roche’s innovative tumor immune drug ateliuzumab (trade name: Taishengqi) combined with chemotherapy for first-line treatment of a wide range of small cell lung cancerThis is the first indication that atelizumab has been approved in China, marking Roche’s formal entry into the field of tumor immunotherapy in China.Atilizumab (English name Tecentriq, English common name atezolizumab) combined with chemotherapy is the first in the world, and currently the only tumor immunotherapy approved in China for first-line treatment of extensive stage small cell lung cancer.Atilizumab is also the first innovative drug to prove significant benefits to patients with small cell lung cancer in more than 30 years.Urgent clinical needs: The 5-year survival rate of patients with small cell lung cancer is only 2%. Lung cancer is the highest incidence and mortality rate in China. In recent years, the incidence of lung cancer in China has also shown a rapid increase.Professor Cheng Ying, Secretary of the Party Committee of Jilin Cancer Hospital, Vice Chairman of the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology (CSCO), and Chairman of the CSCO Small Cell Lung Cancer Professional Committee, said, “Lung cancer can be divided into non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer according to the type of pathology.Small cell lung cancer accounts for about 15% of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer is a highly invasive and rapidly proliferating malignant tumor. “According to epidemiological statistics, small cell lung cancer is closely related to smoking and second-hand smoke exposure, with more than 80% ofPatients with small cell lung cancer have a history of smoking [1].The prognosis of patients with small cell lung cancer is extremely poor. Two-thirds of patients have reached the extensive stage at the time of initial diagnosis, that is, distant organ or lymph node metastasis has occurred at the time of disease discovery, and the 5-year average survival rate after diagnosis is only 2% [2].Chemotherapy is currently the most common clinical treatment option for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer, but only 20% of patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer will receive complete relief of symptoms after treatment, often with drug resistance soon after, and the 5-year survival rate is extremely low..Scientists around the world have been researching various innovative drugs for small cell lung cancer.Since 1970, there have been 40 phase III clinical trials for small cell lung cancer worldwide, but most of them have failed.Patients with small cell lung cancer need more effective and innovative treatment options.The first breakthrough in 30 years: Atelizumab reduces the risk of death in patients with small cell lung cancer. This time, the State Drug Administration approved atelizumab combined with chemotherapy for first-line treatment of extensive stage small cell lung cancer, mainly based on global multicenters.Results of Phase III clinical trial IMpower133.The trial enrolled 403 patients with extensive-stage small cell lungs, which were randomly divided into two groups. The efficacy and safety of atelizumab combined with chemotherapy and single chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer were compared.According to the study, compared with chemotherapy methods, atelizumab combined with chemotherapy can significantly prolong the overall survival of patients with small cell lung cancer and reduce the risk of death by 30% of patients in this study.As the main Chinese investigator of the IMpower133 study, Professor Cheng Ying introduced, “The median survival time of small cell lung cancer patients in the atelizumab plus chemotherapy group was 12.3 months, compared with only 10.3 months in the chemotherapy group. This isFor the first time, the median survival of patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer was more than one year. “Atilizumab combined with chemotherapy can significantly reduce the risk of disease progression and death [progression-free survival (PFS) = 5.2 months vs. 4.3Months; HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96; p = 0.017], the study also suggested that atelizumab combined with chemotherapy could bring lasting benefits to patients with small cell lung cancer.At a follow-up of 13.9 months, the proportion of patients who found sustained remission in the experimental group was three times that of the chemotherapy group (15% vs. 5%); at a longer follow-up, the atelizumab combined with the chemotherapy group,One third of patients survived more than 18 months, a significant increase compared to 21% in the chemotherapy group.In terms of safety, the performance of atelizumab combined with chemotherapy was consistent with the previous safety of atelizumab.Professor Cheng Ying said, “The IMpower133 study is a landmark study in the immunotherapy of extensive small cell lung cancer. It is the first major breakthrough in the first-line treatment of extensive small cell lung cancer in 30 years. Attilizumab combined with chemotherapy has replaced traditional first-line chemotherapyThe plan has become a new standard for first-line treatment of extensive-stage small cell lung cancer. The approval of atilizumab also means that China’s small cell lung cancer has entered a new era, and small cell lung cancer has entered a new era of immunity. “Building an ecosystem: Roche helps China’s lung cancer prevention and treatment atelizumab is an innovative monoclonal antibody developed by Roche for tumor immunotherapy.Unlike tumor immunotherapies that specifically target PD-1, atelizumab binds to the PD-L1 protein on the surface of tumor cells and the surface of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, which can not only prevent the binding of PD-L1 to the PD-1 receptorIt can also prevent the binding of PD-L1 and B7.1 receptors, not only help the human immune system recognize tumor cells, but also further activate the human immune system T cells to attack tumor cells.Roche is currently conducting nine large-scale global phase III clinical trials of atelizumab to assess its clinical needs in urgently needed or ineffective tumor fields, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and triple-negative breast cancer.Atilizumab has been approved in the United States, Europe and other places for first-line treatment of specific non-small cell lung cancer, triple negative breast cancer, and the like..
“In March 2019, the U.S. FDA approved the indication for attilizumab small cell lung cancer. In less than a year, atelizumab small cell lung cancer was approved in China, once again witnessing the acceleration of the Chinese governmentNew drug review and approval allow Chinese patients to use the latest drugs with the determination and achievements of Europe and the United States. “Zhou Hong, President of Roche Pharmaceuticals China, said:” Small cell lung cancer is the first adaptation of atelizumab in China.We look forward to more indications for atezolizumab in China in the future, which will meet the unmet needs of Chinese cancer patients and help achieve the realization of healthy China 2030. “Atezolizumab small cell lung cancer indicationsThe approval indicates that Roche Pharmaceuticals has achieved full coverage of lung cancer treatment in China. The product pipeline covers erlotinib (trade name: Tarceva) for EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer, and ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer.Aledinib (trade name: Ansanta), and bevacizumab, a targeted anti-angiogenesis drug (trade name: Anvitin), are among the most productive pharmaceutical companies.In addition, Roche is conducting phase III clinical research on rare targets for lung cancer such as NTRK and ROS1 to further advance the personalized treatment of lung cancer.The above content is only authorized for exclusive use by 39Health.com, please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright party.

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