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Zhao Zhongxiang died of cancer!

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On the morning of January 16, 2020, Zhao Zhongxiang’s son, Zhao Fang, published the news of Zhao Zhongxiang’s death on Zhao Zhongxiang’s personal social media.Zhao Zhongxiang is a well-known host in China. He has hosted programs such as “Zhengda Variety Show”, “Animal World” and “Human and Nature” in more than 40 years of CCTV work.In 1983, the first CCTV Spring Festival Gala was opened by Zhao Zhongxiang.The post-00s may not know that for the post-70s, post-80s, or some post-90s, their wonderful knowledge of nature and animals are all accompanied by the sprout of Zhao Zhongxiang’s voice.Cancer, once again, turns the voice that grows with us into an eternal memory.According to a post published by Zhao Zhongxiang’s son, Zhao Zhongxiang felt unwell at the end of 2019. He went to the doctor and found that he had cancer and had spread.Strengthening anti-cancer screening is the key to defeating it.Pancreatic cancer over 40 years of age, accompanied by any of the following: a family history of pancreatic cancer and a history of diabetes; a history of long-term smoking, drinking, high-fat and high-protein diets; no obvious incentive for upper and middle abdominal fullness, discomfort, and abdominal pain, Appearing symptoms of loss of appetite, fatigue, diarrhea, weight loss, or back pain; chronic pancreatitis, repeated authors, especially chronic pancreatitis with pancreatic duct stones; main pancreatic ductal myxoid papilloma, myxoid cystic adenoma,Patients with pseudopapillary tumors who have elevated serum CA19-9; patients with recent diabetes without family history; recommendations for screening: 1. The above subjects use blood test results of tumor markers such as CA19-9 in combination with abdominal CTScreening with MRI and B ultrasound can also provide corresponding help; 2. The above population, especially those with family history and those with existing pancreatic lesions, undergo CT or MR examinations once a year.Pancreatic cancer still faces great difficulties in early diagnosis and prevention. This is also a common problem faced by all tumors, but pancreatic cancer is more prominent.If these people suddenly have symptoms such as poor appetite, wasting for a short time, suddenly suffering from diabetes, suddenly yellowing all over the body, somehow the color of pee is dark, and the color of the stool is suddenly lightening.Should go to the hospital for investigation.Breast cancer Breast cancer ranks first in the incidence of malignant tumors in women in China, and the age of onset is ten years earlier than that of Western women.High-risk groups for breast cancer include: unborn or primiparous women older than 35; menarche less than 12 years old; women who have had menstruation older than 42 years; relatives who have breast cancer before age 50; 2 or moreSecond-degree relatives with breast or ovarian cancer after age 50; those with a history of contralateral breast cancer or severe atypical hyperplasia or intrapapillary papilloma confirmed by breast biopsy; those who have received chest radiotherapy for more than 10 years.Screening recommendations: General women need to undergo a monthly self-examination after the age of 20, once every 3 years in the age of 20-29, and a clinical examination once a year after the age of 30; 35 years old, taking basic mammograms, once every other yearX-ray film; after the age of 40, a mammogram is performed every 1-2 years.After 60 years of age, check the film every 2-3 years.Women after the age of 30 should also have a breast ultrasound examination once a year.If it is a high-risk group of breast cancer, a clinical examination will be performed once a year after the age of 20, and a breast magnetic resonance examination will be performed after the age of 30.In addition to physical examination and screening, in daily life, women need to keep away from tobacco and alcohol, maintain a healthy weight, adhere to exercise, timely fertility, breastfeeding, and balanced nutrition.If lung cancer is counted from the past three decades, lung cancer is the most rapidly growing malignant tumor in China, and its morbidity and mortality rank first in China.People at high risk for lung cancer include: People over 40 years old who are at least one of the following are at high risk-smoking more than 20 packs / year, including those who have quit smoking for less than 15 years; passive smokers; have a history of occupational exposure (asbestos, beryllium, Uranium, plutonium and other contacts); have a history of malignant tumors or a family history of lung cancer; have a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or diffuse pulmonary fibrosis.Screening recommendations: Low-dose spiral CT screening is recommended for high-risk lung cancer patients. If pulmonary nodules are detected, a second review should be performed at least within 12 months. Generally, it is not recommended for patients with pulmonary nodules.PET / CT is used as a method for screening lung cancer.Except for those at high risk of lung cancer, ordinary citizens should first quit or not smoke. If there is a risk of occupational exposure, protective measures should be taken. Respiratory diseases should be treated as soon as possible.Liver cancer According to statistics, half of the world’s liver cancer patients are in China, and the mortality rate is second only to lung cancer.High-risk populations for liver cancer: Generally men and women over 35 and women over 45; serological evidence of hepatitis B or C infection; family history of liver cancer; patients with cirrhosis; patients with drug-induced liver damage.Screening recommendations: High-risk groups of men over 35 years of age and women over 45 years of age need to be combined with serum alpha-fetoprotein and liver B-ultrasounds and screened every 6 months.In addition, patients with chronic hepatitis should receive antiviral treatment as soon as possible to control the replication of hepatitis virus, reduce alcohol consumption, lighten food as much as possible, reduce the intake of greasy food, and prevent the intake of moldy food.Gastric cancer China is a country with a high incidence of gastric cancer, with both mortality and morbidity accounting for 50% of the world.High-risk population for liver cancer: If you are over 60 years of age, you have moderate to severe atrophic gastritis, chronic gastric ulcers, gastric polyps, benign gastric remnants after surgery, dysplasia, moderate to severe intestinal metaplasia; clear family history; gastric mucosaGiant wrinkle sign.Screening recommendations: For high-risk groups, regular gastroscopy should be done on the advice of a doctor.The occurrence of gastric cancer is closely related to our diet structure, especially the intake of pickled foods and moldy foods. In addition, we should reduce the intake of nitrite, actively prevent and control Helicobacter pylori infection, quit smoking and alcohol, and do not overdoseOvereating, eating hot food, etc.Prostate cancer Prostate cancer ranks sixth in the incidence of malignant tumors in Chinese men. Clinically, more than 70% of patients were in advanced stages when they were found.High-risk subjects for prostate cancer include: men older than 50 years; men older than 45 years with a family history of prostate cancer; men older than 40 years with a baseline PSA greater than 1 ug / L.Screening recommendations: Population screening is not recommended for men under 40 years of age. Men who are in good health and have a life expectancy of more than 10 years should be screened for PSA. Doctors should explain the risks and risks of prostate screening to the screening subjects in detail.Benefit.To prevent prostate cancer, men must quit smoking and alcohol, reduce intake of high animal fat foods, increase intake of vegetables and fruits, avoid foods that are too spicy, drink plenty of water in daily life, avoid holding back urine, and stay sedentaryVice.Colorectal cancer The incidence of colorectal cancer in China ranks third, and the mortality rate ranks fifth. Judging from the age distribution, the incidence will rise rapidly after the age of 40-45, and there has been a trend of youth in recent years.People at high risk for colorectal cancer include: People over 40 years of age (changes in bowel habits, changes in bowel shape, changes in bowel properties, and pain in the fixed part of the abdomen); Some of immediate family members have had bowel cancer; People who have undergone colon adenoma treatment; Long-termPatients with ulcerative colitis; Population after colorectal cancer surgery; Immediate relatives over 20 years of age with a family history of familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer; Asymptomatic population over 50 years of age.Screening recommendations: For symptomatic high-risk subjects over 40 years of age, symptoms should not be relieved after 2 weeks of symptomatic treatment, then an anorectal digital examination and stool occult blood test should be performed in time.If either is positive, a barium enema or colonoscopy should be performed.Asymptomatic high-risk subjects over the age of 40 should be tested once a year for occult blood tests. If they are positive, add barium enema or enteroscopy. If the stool occult blood test is negative for 3 consecutive times, the screening interval can be appropriately extended.But not more than 3 years.Citizens with a family history of familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer who are over 20 years of age are best tested for genetics. Positives are tested for colonoscopy every 1-2 years.Negatives are screened for individuals over 40 years of age.For those over 50 years of age with no symptoms, it is best to receive a stool occult blood test once a year and enteroscopy every 5 years.To prevent colorectal cancer, we must insist on physical exercise, avoid obesity, eat a healthy diet, increase the intake of crude fiber and fresh fruits, and eat less high-fat and high-protein foods. The elderly can take aspirin for prevention under the guidance of a doctor, stop smoking and alcohol.Cervical cancer: High-risk objects for cervical cancer: Women who are married or have 3 years of sexual life.Screening recommendations: Use cervical cytology at 21-39 years old, once every 2-3 years; use cervical cytology at 30-65 years old, once every 3 years, or combine HPV and cervical cytology screening every 5 yearsOnce a year.Generally, the age is up to 65 years, and if the previous tests showed negative results, no screening is needed.In addition, women who have received the HPV vaccine follow age-specific recommendations.Time is ruthless. Children have grown from tooth to tooth to become adults, and artists who have influenced our youth can not escape the catastrophe of time.Some people call this era “the age of constant loss”. Indeed, in recent years we have sent away many artists who are full of warm memories and youthful years, and we also bid farewell to the stars who were young but fell suddenly.Just like the main theme of “Looking for a Dream”-Death is not the end of life, but forgetting is.Teacher Zhao Zhongxiang, who has become the warm memory of a generation, must be able to live in you and me for a long time.May Mr. Zhao go all the way..

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Gastrointestinal stromal tumors ≠ gastric or bowel cancer

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Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a tumor that occurs in the mesenchymal tissue of the gastrointestinal tract, and can be biologically or malignantly. Immunohistochemical detection usually expresses CD117 and DOG1 positive, showing Cajal cells.) Differentiation, most cases have c-kit or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha polypeptide (PDGFRA) gene activation mutations, and a few cases involve other molecular changes, including genes such as SDHX, BRAF, NF1, K / N-RAS, and PIK3CAMutation etc.This article provides a brief overview of the progress of GISTs in treatment.Surgery is the preferred treatment for localized non-metastatic GISTs, but most patients have metastasis and recurrence after surgery.Imatinib adjuvant therapy plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of tumor metastasis and recurrence, but there are still many controversies in terms of drug dosage and drug administration time. For adjuvant GISTs with large tumor volume and initial unresectable,It’s an option to consider.Sunitinib and regefeneib have played important roles in second- and third-line treatments. New drugs Ripretinib and Avapritinib have been introduced, and they have shown extensive inhibition in KIT and PDGFRA-mutated GIST.Immunotherapy has emerged in recent years in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.1 Surgical treatment Surgery is the first choice for patients with limited or potentially resectable GISTs. The purpose of surgery is to achieve R0 resection. Tumor rupture should be avoided as much as possible. Because GISTs rarely cause lymph node metastasis, GISTs are not surgically removed.Lymph node dissection is required routinely.Surgical treatment of GIST requires a complete resection of the tumor with a negative margin as the standard.The resection range is at least 2 to 3 cm from the tumor, and it has also been reported to be 1 to 2 cm.In short, it is necessary to ensure that both the tumor and the micrometastases are effectively removed.At the same time, on the basis of complete and thorough radical surgery, try to preserve the smoothness of the gastrointestinal tract and the original function.2 Before neoadjuvant therapy, GIST was not sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and relied mainly on surgical treatment. 85% of patients eventually relapsed and metastasized.The advent of imatinib not only significantly prolonged the survival of patients with advanced GIST, but also the preoperative imatinib treatment can reduce tumor volume, reduce the scope of surgery, reduce intraoperative bleeding, convert unresectable GISTs into resectable, reduceThe possibility of multiple organ removal.For patients with GISTs (> 10 cm) that may cause major bleeding or tumor rupture during surgery, duodenum, esophagogastric junction and lower rectum and other tumors and important organs that may invade important organs may cause damage during surgery.treatment.3 Postoperative adjuvant therapy GISTs postoperative adjuvant therapy has gradually shown its unique advantages in reducing tumor recurrence and metastasis after surgery.In recent years, studies have found that approximately 50% of patients with GISTs are effective with imatinib, and another 25% to 30% of patients can obtain stable disease. However, over time, most patients who have been treated with imatinib are effective.Patients showed disease progression with limited treatment with second-line sunitinib or third-line regorafenib, and a few patients developed primary resistance and more than half had secondary resistance.As a result, more drugs targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and other targets have been developed to treat patients with resistance to imatinib.4 Metastatic relapse / unresectable GIST Imatinib Imatinib is a first-line treatment for GISTs. It is currently recommended for adjuvant treatment of advanced and metastatic GISTs, with a recommended dose of 400 mg / d.However, the exact time of imatinib adjuvant therapy has not yet been given.Chinese consensus on diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (2017 edition) recommends: ① Moderate risk of recurrence: The risk of intermediate-risk GIST from non-stomach (mainly small intestine, colorectal) is higher than that of intermediate-risk GIST from stomach, and the relative risk of recurrenceHigh [48], it is recommended that non-gastric origin GIST, imatinib adjuvant therapy for 3 years; gastric-derived GIST, imatinib adjuvant therapy for 1 year.② High risk of recurrence: High risk of recurrence GIST, the duration of adjuvant therapy is at least 3 years; patients with tumor rupture may consider extending the duration of adjuvant therapy.Sunitinib Sunitinib is a new TKI multi-targeted drug targeting KIT, PDGFR, VEGFR and FLT-1 / KDR.In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter phase III blank control clinical trial of advanced unresectable imatinib-resistant GISTs, the average time to tumor progression between the sunitinib group and the blank control group was 27.3, respectively.At week and 6.4 weeks (HR = 0.33, P <0.0001), sunitinib was able to significantly prolong PFS in patients with imatinib-resistant GISTs.In the 2017 edition of the Chinese consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, it is also recommended that for patients with GISTs who have progressed extensively after standard dose of imatinib treatment, it is recommended to switch to sunitinib or choose imatinib to increase the dose.In addition to increasing the amount of imatinib before sunitinib, priority should be given to sunitinib.The 2017 version of the NCCN guidelines (V2) also recommends switching to sunitinib (type 1 recommendation) or imatinib incremental treatment (type 2A recommendation) for second-line treatment that has limited to extensive progression after first-line imatinib treatment.Studies show that patients who switch to sunitinib early can reach 10 months of disease progression, an increase of 600 mg / d or 800 mg / d compared to imatinib, and PFS is only 3.9 months.The effect is obvious, and the incidence of grade 3/4 adverse reactions is low.Sunitinib has shown good disease control efficacy in children and young adults with imatinib-resistant patients, with a median PFS of 15 months, and all adverse reactions can be controlled.Expect better clinical performance of sunitinib to benefit more patients.Regalfinil Regalfinil is a third-line multi-targeting drug for GISTs. It was approved by the FDA in 2013 for the treatment of patients with GISTs who are unresectable and resistant to other TKIs.In experiments with human GISTs xenograft tumors with exon 11 and 17 mutations, sunitinib is more effective than imatinib in inhibiting tumor proliferation.Schvartsman et al enrolled 28 patients with GISTs who failed imatinib and sunitinib, with a 120 mg / d dosing regimen and a median PFS of 8.7 months. The main adverse reactions included fatigue, hand-foot syndrome, Weight loss and diarrhea, grade 3/4 adverse reactions reached 43%.For patients with GIST who have exon 17 mutations who are not effective with imatinib and sunitinib, the clinical benefit rate (complete or partial remission and stable disease) of Reginafinib can reach 93.3%.The median PFS was 22.1 months. The most common grade 3 toxicity was hand-foot skin reaction (55.6%), followed by hypertension (27.8%).Patients with GISTs with mutations in Avapritinib accompanied by PDGFRRA D816V or D842V showed primary resistance to the three TKIs of imatinib, sunitinib, and regofini, while Avapritinib was found to significantly inhibit the activity of PDGFRRA D816V mutations.On January 9, 2020, US time, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the selective KIT and PDGFRA mutation kinase inhibitor Avapritinib for the treatment of specific types of unresectable or metastatic adult GIST-PDGFRA-18 ExplicitChild mutations were positive, including the PDGFRA D842V mutation.Avapritinib is the first precise targeted therapy approved for the treatment of a population of patients with GIST exon mutation PDGFRA-18.The full approval granted by the FDA is based on the efficacy results of the Phase I NAVIGATOR study and the comprehensive safety results of multiple clinical trials of Avapritinib.In 43 GIST patients with positive mutations in exons PDGFRA-18 (38 of whom had the PDGFRAD842V mutation), the total response rate (ORR) after receiving Ayvakit treatment reached 84% (95% CI = 69%, 93%),Among them, the complete response rate (CR) reached 7%; although the median duration of response (mDOR) was not reached, 61% of patients with exon 18 mutation response responded for 6 months or longer (31% of durationRemission patients were followed up for less than 6 months).The most common adverse reactions (> 20%) were edema, nausea, fatigue / weakness, cognitive impairment, vomiting, decreased appetite, diarrhea, altered hair color, increased tearing, abdominal pain, constipation, rash, and dizziness.The advent of Avapritinib offers hope for patients with TKI-resistant PDGFRA D842V mutations.Ripretinib Ripretinib (DCC-2618) is a novel oral KIT and PDGFRA kinase inhibitor.Ripretinib potently inhibits a wide range of different mutation forms of KIT and PDGFRA kinases, including secondary drug-resistant mutations and refractory primary mutations.Ripretinib optimizes the binding of inhibitors to the KIT and PDGFRA domains to control switch-mediated conformational activation of kinase activity, making these oncogenic kinases into inactive conformations.INVICTUS is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international multi-site trial in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors who have previously received ≥3 lines of treatment, including imatinib, sunitinib, and reginafenib.Center Phase III study.The results of the main study were announced at the 2019 ESMO conference, which showed that ripretinib reached the primary endpoint of improving patients’ progression-free survival (PFS).Compared with placebo, patients treated with Ripretinib had an 85% reduction in risk of disease progression or death, with a median PFS of 6.3 months, compared with 1.0 months in the placebo group (HR = 0.15, 95% CI 0.09-0.25; P<0.0001).This PFS benefit was observed in all subgroups evaluated.In recent years, new drugs have emerged that target different mutation targets in GIST. Immunotherapy is also receiving more and more attention from GISTs researchers, expecting them to have better performance and move to clinical applications.The above content is only authorized by 39Health.com for exclusive use, please do not reprint without authorization of the copyright party..

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Why do people with diabetes have a lower risk of prostate cancer?

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Cancer risk increases in diabetic patients, but several studies have shown that people with diabetes have a reduced risk of prostate cancer.There are currently some hypotheses related to testosterone (T) concentration, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and lower risk of prostate cancer.An Australian researcher’s article published in J Clin Endocrinol Metab in July 2019 explored the above hypotheses. Are these factors a factor that reduces the risk of prostate cancer in patients with diabetes?Can these factors reduce the risk of prostate cancer in patients with DM?1. Hormonal prostate is sensitive to androgens, and lower testosterone (T) concentrations can be observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Similar hormone concentration changes are considered to be one of the factors affecting the risk of diabetic prostate cancer.Therefore, low T concentrations may reduce the risk of prostate cancer in men with type 2 diabetes.Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) binds to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) in the circulation.Insulin increases the synthesis of IGF1 and reduces the production of free IGFBPs.Long course type 2 diabetes is associated with hypoinsulinemia, which may reduce the production of IGF1, increase the concentration of IGFBPs, and reduce the availability of IGF1 in the blood circulation.Since IGF1 is closely related to the development of prostate cancer, it has also been speculated that this may be another mechanism associated with type 2 diabetes and reduced prostate cancer risk.However, the association between hormonal factors and prostate cancer is not completely clear. Some meta-analysis and prospective research results on the relationship between testosterone, IGF1, IGFBPs and prostate cancer have not found its protective effect or contradicted the conclusions mentioned above, but these studiesThe method used and the test object may have an impact on the analysis.2. AGEs Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are proteins or lipids that undergo non-enzymatic oxidation in a hyperglycemic environment and are associated with vascular complications related to diabetes.It has not been extensively studied in prostate cancer risk, but studies have shown that it can promote the spread of prostate cancer and increase the risk of prostate cancer.In this study, the effects of aging and other chronic diseases on AGEs were excluded.In addition, factors related to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, including glucose, insulin resistance, and stabilizing compounds methyllysine (CML) and factors related to the risk of primary cancer, may have additional effects on the disease.Research Methodology The study was based on a male health study in Perth, Western Australia.After excluding men with a history of prostate cancer (n = 388), men with testectomy (n = 56), baseline androgen / anti-androgen therapy (n = 98), and lack of hormone data (n = 557), the study included3149 men.The average age of the included samples was 76.96 years, and 450 men (14.3%) had diabetes.Compared with non-diabetic men, they have higher body mass index and lower T, DHT and SHBG concentrations.Insulin-like growth factor 1 is higher in diabetic patients, while IGBFP3 is lower.CML was higher in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients, but this difference was not statistically significant.In addition, patients with diabetes have higher blood glucose levels and higher HOMA2-IR values.A fasting blood sample was collected from the subject, and plasma was prepared and tested.Results were statistically analyzed using Stata version 13.1.Taking death as a competitive factor, a proportional-risk competitive-risk analysis method was used for longitudinal analysis.Adjustment factors included age, body mass index, physical activity (≥150 minutes / week of vigorous physical activity), alcohol intake, smoking status, and previous cancer history.The factors used to assess whether diabetes and prostate cancer risk were hormonal variables including T, SHBG, IGF1, and IGFBP1 / IGFBP3, which were individually added to the fully adjusted model.Researchers also tested CML, glucose, and HOMA2-IR (calculated based on available fasting insulin measurements) related to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes as potential regulators of the study.Findings and Discussion In the study, 450 men had diabetes at baseline and 315 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer during follow-up.Of the 2,440 men with fasting insulin and blood glucose data, 253 were diagnosed with prostate cancer.After analysis of the competitive risk model, it was found that diabetes is indeed associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer, with a subgroup hazard ratio (SHR) of 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.98; P = 0.028).After inclusion of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, or glucose, the correlation persisted.In addition, additional corrections to CML in the fully adjusted model did not change the inverse association between diabetes and prostate cancer risk, so CML was not related to prostate cancer risk.Among men with fasting insulin data, diabetes was negatively correlated with prostate cancer risk, but it was not statistically significant (SHR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.43-1.04; P = 0.071).Adding HOMA2-IR to the fully adjusted model did not change this connection.Based on this, researchers believe that after adjusting for potential confounding factors, elderly diabetic patients do have a lower risk of prostate cancer, but this negative correlation is not mediated by sex hormones, SHBG, IGF1 or its binding protein, or glucose concentration.Moreover, insulin resistance is not related to this connection, but it needs to be further confirmed in larger studies.In addition, CML is not associated with prostate cancer risk in older men.These results also need to be validated in other age groups.Researchers hope to have further research to explore the potential factors that reduce the risk of cancer in diabetic men, and this study also needs to assess whether traditional statistical methods for dealing with competitive risk can explain the bias of current epidemiological research results.The above content is only authorized by 39Health.com for exclusive use, please do not reprint without authorization of the copyright party..

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Professor Wang Yu: 2019 annual inventory of important research in thyroid cancer

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In 2019, are there any important studies in the field of thyroid cancer that deserve attention?Professor Wang Yu, Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Cancer Hospital, brings an annual inventory of important research in the field of thyroid cancer in 2019.01 Artificial intelligence assists evaluation and decision-making of thyroid nodules In February 2019, the Tianjin Cancer Hospital team conducted a multi-center retrospective multi-cohort diagnostic study, using ultrasound image data from 17,627 patients and 25,325 normal people in three centers to establishA deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) model was developed to improve the accuracy of thyroid cancer diagnosis, and internal and external verification was performed. The research results were published in “Lancet Oncology”.The results show that the overall sensitivity of the model is 84.3% to 93.4%, and the specificity is 86.1% to 87.8%. Compared with experienced ultrasound doctors, the DCNN model not only has similar sensitivity to diagnose thyroid cancer, but also has higher specificity.[1].In July 2019, a research team from Duke University in the United States developed a DCNN artificial intelligence model to assess whether a fine needle aspiration biopsy is required for a thyroid nodule. The study was published in the journal Radiology.The results show that the sensitivity and specificity of artificial intelligence and radiologists using the TI-RADS system in determining thyroid nodule properties and making fine needle aspirations are similar [2].★ Review that ultrasound imaging is of great significance for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and the formulation of follow-up diagnosis and treatment plans. The above two articles published in “Lancet Oncology” and “Radiology” respectively show that artificial intelligence is helpful in determining the nature andIn terms of clinical decision-making, the level of experienced ultrasound doctors can now be reached, and the future clinical application prospects are expected.These two studies suggest that the widespread application of artificial intelligence may help inexperienced imaging physicians improve the diagnosis efficiency of thyroid cancer and effectively reduce unnecessary fine needle aspirations.However, there are still a few problems to be solved for large-scale clinical applications of artificial intelligence: First, it requires a larger number of samples to be repeatedly trained and verified to determine the image acquisition mode to ensure authenticity and improve its scalability; second,In addition to ultrasound images, more clinical information needs to be included for a comprehensive diagnosis, and the conclusions reached will be more convincing.02 The special transcriptome characteristics and pathway activation of undifferentiated thyroid cancer (ATC) help targeted treatment of ATC and advanced DTC (differentiated thyroid cancer, including papillary cancer PTC and follicular cancer FTC) with poor prognosis.Yoo et al. Performed genome and transcriptome sequencing of ATC and late DTC.Studies have shown that in ATC and advanced DTC, TERT, AKT1, PIK3CA, and EIF1AX often co-mutate with BRAFV600E and RAS, two driver genes.CDKN2A gene deletion is associated with up-regulation of PD-L1 and PD-L2 and poor prognosis.Transcriptome analysis revealed the fourth molecular subtype of thyroid cancer, the ATC class.Moreover, the JAK-STAT signaling pathway can be a potential drug target for RAS-positive ATC [3].★ Comment: This study has deepened our understanding of the molecular mechanism of thyroid cancer.Based on the transcriptome sequencing analysis, TCGA proposed two molecular subtypes of PTC, namely BRAF and RAS.The research team previously revealed a third molecular subtype that is closely related to FTC: non-BRAF-non-RAS (NBNR).Although the molecular typing of DTC has been relatively perfect, the molecular mechanism of DTC’s conversion to advanced DTC and ATC is still unclear.Previous research has been limited to genomic changes.Therefore, this article studies the genome and transcriptome of ATC and late DTC at the same time, and has some important findings.One of the important findings of this study is to reveal the special transcriptome characteristics of ATC. The transcription characteristics of ATC do not belong to any of the previous BRTC, RAS and NBNR classes of DTC. They were classified as a new type in the study.The molecular classification of ATCs shows that ATC is significantly different from DTCs in pathogenesis and disease outcomes.Another important finding of this study is that it revealed that the JAK-STAT pathway is abnormally activated in RAS mutation-positive ATC, and inhibition of this pathway will significantly inhibit tumor cell proliferation. The JAK-STAT pathway may become a potential target for ATC.03 Larotinib brings new dawn to advanced NTRK gene-fused thyroid cancer At the 2019 ETA annual meeting, researchers announced the preliminary results of larotinib in the treatment of NTRK gene-fused advanced thyroid cancer [4].For the 26 patients included (including 19 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 2 follicular carcinomas, and 5 undifferentiated carcinomas), the objective response rate (ORR) reached 79% and the disease control rate (DCR) reached 87%.★ Review: On November 27, 2018, the FDA approved the targeted drug Larotinib (LOXO-101) for the NTRK1-3 gene fusion.Larotinib is the first broad-spectrum anti-cancer targeted drug approved by the FDA to target specific genetic mutations across tumor sites.Although the incidence of NTRK gene fusion in thyroid cancer accounts for only about 1.5%, considering the large patient base of thyroid cancer and the increasing incidence, the advent of larotinib can still bring dawn to many patients with advanced thyroid cancer.04 Apatinib may become a new choice for iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. At the ATA Annual Conference 2019, Professor Lin Yansong of Peking Union Medical College Hospital announced that apatinib was used to treat locally advanced / metastatic iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.Results of long-term follow-up of exploratory clinical trials of cancer (RAIR-DTC) [5].The study was divided into apatinib 750 mg and 500 mg daily groups, with 10 patients in each group.As of October 2019, the median follow-up time was 37 months.The results showed that both the 750mg and 500mg groups had very high disease control rates (DCR, 100% and 90%) and objective response rates (ORR, 90% and 70%). Progression-free survival (PFS)) The time data is also amazing, reaching 34.9 months (750mg group) and 12.9 months (500mg group), and the adverse effects caused by the treatment can be tolerated.★ Comments: The treatment of RAIR-DTC patients has always been the focus and difficulty in the field of thyroid cancer diagnosis and treatment.In 2014 and 2015, the US FDA approved sorafenib and lovatinib for the treatment of RAIR-DTC. In 2017, sorafenib was also approved for RAIR-DTC treatment in China.As a self-developed drug in China, apatinib has become the world’s first small molecule anti-angiogenesis targeted drug that has been proven safe and effective in advanced gastric cancer.Since Professor Lin Yansong first demonstrated the short-term efficacy of apatinib in RAIR-DTC at the ATA Annual Meeting in 2016, his follow-up research has received widespread attention at home and abroad.The long-term follow-up results reported in this report show that apatinib is considerable from both ORR, DCR, and PFS data, and also exceeds the data from clinical trials of sorafenib and lovatinib.This also makes us have more expectations for the efficacy of apatinib in the treatment of RAIR-DTC. Currently, a phase III multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial led by Professor Lin Yansong is still in progress.05 BLU-667: New hope for treatment of advanced RET mutation-positive medullary thyroid cancer At the ASCO annual meeting in 2019, researchers announced a sub-research in the ARROW study (NCT03037385): BLU-667 treatment of RET mutation-positive medullary thyroidResults of further research on cancer.The results showed that in 49 evaluable medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) patients, the ORR was 47%, of which 2 were CR (complete response), 21 were PR (partial response), and 23 were CR or PR.In 15 cases, the sustained response time exceeded 6 months [6].However, the DCR of MTC patients is as high as 98%, and the tumor markers [carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and calcitonin] are significantly reduced.At the same time, in terms of safety, the related toxicity of BLU-677 treatment is generally low and reversible (28% of grade 3 adverse reactions, no grade 4/5 adverse reactions, and no adverse reactions leading to withdrawal).★ Comments: Currently two targeted drugs for advanced MTC, cabottinib and vantanib, are multi-target kinase inhibitors, which are non-selective and cause poor tolerance.RET gene mutations are common in MTC. BLU-667 is an oral, potent and highly selective small molecule inhibitor that targets RET-causing mutations.Studies have shown that BLU-667 has a significantly improved affinity for RET compared to approved cabozantinib and van der Thani.While cabozantinib and van der Tani have only been shown to improve PFS in advanced MTC, they have not shown a significant improvement in overall survival (OS), and they often fall into a drug-free state after drug resistance occurs, and thisThe two drugs have not yet been marketed in China.Based on the results of stunning Phase I clinical trials, the US FDA has granted BLU-667 a breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of advanced RET mutation-positive MTC.In addition to late MTC, BLU-667 has also been shown to have good antitumor activity in late NSCLC with RET gene fusion mutations.What’s more worth mentioning is that on March 18, 2019, the State Drug Administration of China approved the Phase I clinical trial of BLU-667 in China as the Chinese part of the international ARROW study.The indications for this trial are medullary thyroid carcinoma, NSCLC with RET fusions, and other advanced solid tumors with RET mutations.At present, the trial has begun to recruit patients in China. In addition to providing clinical trial data of domestic patients, it is also expected to synchronize the domestic marketing process of the drug with foreign countries and bring the gospel to patients with advanced RET mutation-positive MTC.The above content is only authorized by 39Health.com for exclusive use, please do not reprint without authorization of the copyright party..

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Obesity, the source of all diseases, is also good?

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Obesity has basically been convicted of the “source of all diseases”, diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer … wherever it is involved.A recent study published by JAMA, a leading oncology journal, found that higher BMI is better for cancer patients in some cases.Is immunotherapy better for obesity?PD-L1 antibody therapy has spread throughout the world in recent years, bringing hope to countless cancer patients, and a recent study by Flinders University in Australia found that patients with high BMI have PD-L1 antibodies for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancerAtezolizumab has a stronger response.Based on earlier studies of advanced melanoma, the team focused its attention on the relationship between BMI and the response of non-small cell lung cancer patients to atezolizumab.After analyzing the data of 2261 patients, after excluding interference, it was found that among patients receiving atezolizumab, there was a linear relationship between the increase in BMI and overall survival. Compared with patients with BMI less than 25, the overall survival was significantly improved in overweight or obese patients.In patients receiving docetaxel, high BMI failed to have a positive effect on overall survival.Although being overweight and obese increases the risk of cancer, when you get cancer, a higher BMI may bring greater survival benefits to patients during immunotherapy.Of course, the mechanism behind it needs to be further studied, don’t be so fat, and in general, BMI is still not so high.

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Zhao Zhongxiang dies from cancer: how can cancer “harmoniously coexist” with cancer in its advanced stages?

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On January 16th, the famous announcer Zhao Zhongxiang’s 78th birthday, but he died of illness this morning.This morning, Zhao Zhongxiang’s son, Zhao Fang, released a message on a social platform, saying that Zhao Zhongxiang died of illness at 7:30 on January 16, 2020 in Beijing at the age of 78.It is reported that Mr. Zhao Zhongxiang felt unwell at the end of 2019. After the medical examination, he was found to have cancer and had spread. He has been actively cooperating with treatment since then.Zhao Fang said that during his father’s stay in the hospital, his mother always accompanied him to take care of him, knowing that he had left peacefully.Cancer treatment has so far recognized a difficult problem in medicine, especially for patients who have spread to the advanced stage like Teacher Zhao Zhongxiang.So, for patients who have missed the best treatment time and have almost no hope of cure, how to compete with cancer for time, to live in harmony and reduce pain?Zhao Zhongxiang’s death is difficult to fight, may try to coexist with it. If the cancer is detected early, before it has metastasized and spread, it will be removed by surgery and then treated with adjuvant therapy such as chemoradiation.However, the condition of advanced cancer is not so ideal.The diagnosis of advanced cancer is a major blow to patients and families, but don’t give up even if there is little hope for cure.In recent years, many experts have proposed “survival with tumor” treatment schemes, that is, to treat cancer that is difficult to eliminate as a “chronic disease”, and to control cancer cells in an inactive state by means of immunotherapy, etc.Prevent cancer from continuing to spread and further increase harm.For patients with a good tumor growth location, low malignancy, and normal immune system, this treatment can significantly reduce the patient’s pain, improve quality of life, and improve survival.In short, it means “I don’t commit cancer, and cancer doesn’t commit me.” In a short period of time, no one can “annihilate” anyone.

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CANCER

Infected with cancer, China has become a “heavy disaster area”!

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Overall, China, South Korea, Japan, and Mongolia have suffered the most!Why are East Asians so unlucky?Over the past sixty years, people have made a series of breakthroughs in understanding the link between infection and cancer, and at the same time, the prospects for preventing cancer have become increasingly broad.Many carcinogenic infections are potential modifiable risk factors, and the medical community has developed corresponding prevention tools for this.Of the 11 infectious pathogens classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as first-class carcinogens, the most important four are Helicobacter pylori (Hp), high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).Taken together, they account for more than 90% of infection-related cancers worldwide.Recently, by using relevant histological subtypes from the Cancer Registry and using GLOBOCAN (the IARC online database provides estimates of morbidity and mortality for 36 cancers in 185 countries), IARC researchers estimated the 2018 national levelThe incidence of cancer attributable to infection.Related research results were published in The Lancet Global Health (Impact Factor 15.873).Of the 2.2 million new infection-related cancer cases, more than 90% can be attributed to Hp, HPV, HBV, and HCV. As shown in Tables 1 and 2, as a whole, in 2018, there were 2.2 million new cancer cases worldwide.Attributable to infection, accounting for 13% of all cancer cases (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer); the age-standardized incidence (ASIR) was 25.0 cases per 100,000 person-years.More than 90% of them can be attributed to Hp, HPV, HBV, and HCV: Hp caused 810,000 new cases, mainly non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma, and ASIR was 8.7 cases per 100,000 person-years; HPV caused 690,000 new cases, mainlyIt is cervical cancer, with an ASIR of 8.0 cases per 100,000 person-years; HBV causing 360,000 new cases, and ASIR of 4.1 cases per 100,000 person-years; HCV causing 160,000 new cases, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma, and ASIR per 1010,000 cases per 10,000 people.Other infectious pathogens, namely Epstein-Barr virus (Human Herpesvirus 4, HHV-4), Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1), Human Herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi’s sarcoma herpes virus, HHV-8)) And parasite infections caused the remaining 210,000 new cases.The total burden of cancer attributable to infection is equal between men and women, but the lineage of infectious pathogens and cancer varies by gender; as shown in Table 1.East Asia suffers the most. China is the most attributable. Attributable infections are estimated to be the highest in East Asia, with ASIR at 37.9 cases per 100,000 person-years, followed by Sub-Saharan Africa (33.1 cases per 100,000 person-years), Northern Europe (every 1013.6 cases per 10,000 person-years) and West Asia (13.8 cases per 100,000 person-years) were the lowest; as shown in Table 2.However, the relative contribution of the four major infectious pathogens to cancer incidence varies by region.In East Asia, the burden of cancer attributable to infection mainly comes from Hp (17.6 cases per 100,000 person-years) and HBV (10.5 cases per 100,000 person-years).It is worth noting that of the 2.2 million new cancer cases attributable to infection worldwide in 2018, China alone accounted for 780,000 (35%); including 340,000 (42%) HpAs a result, 250,000 cases (69%) were caused by HBV; as shown in Table 2.The high cancer burden in China is not only caused by a large population, but also by high ASIR attributable to Hp (15.6 cases per 100,000 person-years) and high ASIR attributable to HBV infection (11.7 cases per 100,000 person-years).) Caused jointly; as shown in Table 2 and Figure 1.The situation in the three Koreas, Japan, and the United States is also not good. Mongolia ’s severely exceeded standards can be attributed to Hp cancer at high risk areas including East Asia, Latin America (especially its west coast), the Middle East and Eastern Europe; as shown in Figure 1.High-risk areas of cancer attributable to HBV are clustered in certain countries in East Asia and West Africa.Specifically, the incidence of cancer caused by H. pylori infection is very high in South Korea, with ASIR at 35.2 cases per 100,000 person-years, followed by Japan (23.8 cases per 100,000 person-years); in addition, cancers attributable to HBVThe incidence is also high in South Korea (8.6 cases per 100,000 person-years).In all other regions, ASIR caused by Hp infection is less than 10 cases per 100,000 person-years (the highest in Central and Eastern Europe, 9.2 cases per 100,000 person-years); ASIR caused by HBV is less than 3 cases per 100,000 persons (except Southeast Asia,5.8 cases per 100,000 person-years).The high burden of cancer attributable to infections in sub-Saharan Africa is mainly caused by cancers caused by HPV (19.3 cases per 100,000 person-years).Among all regions of the world, this region has the highest ASIR for HPV-related cancers; as shown in Figure 2.This area also has the highest ASIR for cancers associated with human herpes virus type 8.Other regions with a particularly high burden of cancer caused by HPV include Central and Eastern Europe (10.9 cases per 100,000 person-years), Southeast Asia (9.6 cases per 100,000 person-years), South America (9.6 cases per 100,000 person-years), and India (per 100,000 person-years)9.0 cases per 100,000 people).Except for the Middle East, the ASIR of HPV-related cancers in most countries and regions is higher than 5 cases per 100,000 people; as shown in Figure 1.There is a clear correlation between ASIR for cancer attributable to HPV and national income measured by the World Bank, from 6.9 cases per 100,000 people-years in high (and middle-high) income countries to 109.2 cases per 10,000 person-years, and 16.1 cases per 100,000 person-years in low-income countries.In all regions, cancers attributable to HPV dominate the female population, while cancers attributable to other infections are more common in men than in women.ASIR for cancer attributable to HCV is highest in North Africa (12.0 cases per 100,000 person-years), and below 5 cases per 100,000 person-years in all other regions of the world; as shown in Table 2.Two high-income countries, Japan (4.1 cases per 100,000 person-years) and the United States (3.6 cases per 100,000-years), have a higher incidence of cancer attributable to HCV than the world average (1.7 cases per 100,000-years);As shown in table 2.Of the four major infectious pathogens, Mongolia is the only country with ASIRs in the highest category (greater than 10 cases per 100,000 person-years).Both men and women are affected by HPV. Cervical cancer accounts for about 80% of the cancer burden attributable to HPV, and women (620,000 cases) account for about 90% of worldwide cancer attributable to HPV (690,000 cases); as shown in the table1 is shown.However, these ratios vary by income category, with the highest rates in low-income countries; as shown in Figure 3.Conversely, in high-income countries, the proportion of anal reproduction and head and neck cancer burden caused by HPV is higher than in low-income countries, as is the proportion of men’s cancer attributable to HPV.Overall, HPV 16 and HPV 18 accounted for 72% (500,000 cases) of all cancer cases attributable to HPV, and HPV 31, HPV 33, HPV 45, HPV 52, and HPV 58 accounted for 17% (12Million cases); as shown in Figure 3.Wu Ling’s pain in the heart, what should I do?Since cancers caused by Hp, HPV, HBV and HCV infections have placed a heavy burden on East Asian countries (especially China), the following points must be achieved in terms of prevention and control measures.▍ Vaccination: Hepatitis B vaccine and HPV vaccine are the only two vaccines in the world that can effectively prevent cancer.Since the infancy of hepatitis B vaccine and other measures have been carried out, the number of hepatitis B virus carriers in China has decreased, and the incidence of liver cancer has also decreased.The launch of cervical cancer vaccines also brings hope to vulnerable populations.▍ Pay attention to diet hygiene Hp is highly contagious and can be transmitted through hands, dirty food or tableware, feces and other channels.Therefore, people should develop good eating and drinking habits in daily life.Use public chopsticks and spoons for dinner, and share meals when possible; patients with chronic gastritis should avoid mouth-to-mouth feeding of young children; patients should not kiss with others.▍ Timely treatment It is important to take reasonable antiviral treatment and prevent liver cirrhosis for chronic hepatitis B, which can effectively control and delay the onset of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer.Early treatment of precancerous lesions of gastric and cervical cancer can effectively reduce the incidence of cancer.定期 Regular screening of high-risk populations Those who are infected with HBV, HCV, HPV, EB virus, and Hp are regarded as high-risk populations for corresponding cancers. They should conduct regular physical examinations to detect early cancers early and achieve the goals of early diagnosis and early treatment.The above content is only authorized by 39Health.com for exclusive use, please do not reprint without authorization of the copyright party..

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Can “good deeds” improve cancer pain?

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As the year approaches, friends of Chinese students from all over the world have already bought a variety of souvenirs and are preparing to go home for the New Year.The Chinese student at Harvard University, named Zaosong Zheng, picked something special to take home.On December 9, 2019, Zheng Zaosong, a Chinese student at Harvard University, returned to China for carrying a cancer research sample from a laboratory in private, was arrested at the airport, and faces multiple charges.Upon inspection, Zheng Zaosong’s checked luggage contained a lot of brown liquid containing cancer cells.What is it to take home with cancer cells?In the face of police inquiries, Zheng Zaosong initially lied to him as a friend. Later, he admitted that 8 of these bottles had been secretly taken from Harvard Medical School’s Beth Israel Deacon Medical Center without permission.After that, he “replicated” 11 based on the research of his colleagues.The reason for taking them back to China is that Zheng Zaosong wanted to send these cancer research samples to a domestic hospital and then publish the research results in China in his own name to develop his research career.Isn’t this stealing?It is understood that Zheng Zaosong’s research direction is bladder cancer and kidney cancer. He has excellent academic performance and has won several outstanding student scholarships in schools.But through this incident, he will face up to 10 years in prison.Take a look, the great future is ruined by “evil thoughts”. Be true to being a person and even more sincere in medical research!Let’s take a look at the research that experts and scholars who are really engaged in scientific research have done hope to change the diagnosis and treatment!01 Helping others helps “heal” yourself Recently, a new study published by the Peking University research team in the journal of the National Academy of Sciences states that altruistic behavior can reduce physical pain.What is altruistic behavior?It’s just being kind to others without expecting any reward!Researchers say that when doing altruistic behavior, the brain produces chemicals such as dopamine, which increases excitement and reduces pain in the body.To learn more about the impact of altruistic behavior on pain perception, researchers conducted four studies.In the first study, people who volunteered to donate blood after the earthquake had less pain at the needle.In another study, researchers recruited cancer patients who had been suffering from physical pain for a long time and conducted a seven-day trial.The patients were randomly divided into altruism group and control group.During personal activities, patients were asked to clean the common area for their roommates (altruistic group) or for themselves (control group).During group activities, patients in the altruistic group prepared nutritional diet plans for their roommates and shared these plans during group meetings.In the control group, a healthy nutrition diet workshop was conducted by nurses.After each activity, their pain was assessed using the Wong-Baker Facial Pain Rating Scale.The results of the study showed that pain in the altruistic group decreased over time.The decrease in pain was more pronounced when patients increased their altruistic activity.And when they were acting for personal benefit, the effect of reducing pain was reduced by at least 62%.Brother Jie: Love others is love yourself!Did you help someone today?02 Bariatric surgery can reduce the risk of skin cancer. Fat little friends have another reason to do bariatric surgery!One study showed that obese people undergoing bariatric surgery have a reduced risk of skin cancer, including melanoma.Recently, a research team investigated the relationship between bariatric surgery and skin cancer.The study was published in JAMA Dermatology.The study included data from 2007 on obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and 2,040 patients who had obesity but received routine treatment only at medical centers, such as lifestyle recommendations.After 15 years of follow-up, patients undergoing bariatric surgery lost an average of 47.6 pounds (21.6 kg).The weight of patients who have not undergone weight loss surgery remains relatively constant, but the average weight loss or gain does not exceed 6.6 pounds (3 kg).It is worth noting that 23 people in the bariatric surgery group had malignant skin cancer or malignant melanoma.In the group without bariatric surgery, 45 people developed malignant skin cancer or malignant melanoma.In other words, the patients in the bariatric surgery group not only became thinner, they also reduced the risk of skin cancer!Researchers also found that the biggest difference between the two groups was in malignant melanoma.Among patients who had not undergone bariatric surgery, there were 29 patients with malignant melanoma, compared with only 12 in the bariatric surgery group.This means that after bariatric surgery, the risk of malignant melanoma is reduced by 57%!Is obesity also a risk factor for skin cancer?Researchers say that obesity causes chronic systemic inflammation, which provides a better environment for tumor growth.Obesity itself is also related to cancer morbidity and mortality.Brother Jie: Hold your mouth and open your legs!03 The gospel of male patients: AI can be used for prostate cancer detection and classification. Artificial intelligence (AI) has become more and more widely used in cancer diagnosis and treatment. A few days ago, a study published by Google Health in Nature published readings through AI.To achieve an accuracy rate that exceeds humans!(Click to view).Recently, researchers from Sweden have developed a method for the histopathological diagnosis and classification of prostate cancer based on AI, and found that AI has the potential to solve the bottlenecks faced by histopathology of prostate cancer today.The study was published in The Lancet Oncology.Researchers used a digital pathology scanner to digitize 8,000 biopsies taken from 1,200 50-69-year-old Swedish men and obtain high-resolution images.Approximately 6,600 samples were used to train the AI ​​system.The remaining samples were used to test the accuracy of the AI ​​system.The researchers also “problematically” compared the diagnosis of AI with the results of assessments by 23 world-renowned urologists.The results show that the AI ​​system is almost perfect in determining whether a sample contains cancer cells and estimating the length of a tumor in a biopsy.When determining the severity of prostate cancer, the accuracy of the AI ​​system is comparable to that of international experts.WHAT?Is AI going to replace humans?Researchers said that the widespread promotion of AI systems in clinical practice requires more research verification.But AI-based assessments of prostate cancer biopsies may change future medical practices and improve diagnostic quality.The idea is not to replace humans with AI, but rather to serve as a safety net to prevent pathologists from missed diagnosis and to help standardize grading.It can also be used as a “substitute” in some areas where there is a complete lack of pathologists today.Brother Jie: The future has come!04 Daily steps: New prognostic factors for locally advanced lung cancer?Monitoring physical activity can improve people’s health, such as observing the development of hypertension from a reduced body mass index.But you know what?A pedometer can also predict the development of a disease, but it is also cancer!A new study shows that a pedometer can predict the prognosis of lung cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation.”I think the number of steps is a new vital sign of cancer treatment! We have found that tracking the patient’s activity level before treatment can provide powerful insights for clinicians.” The researchers said.The researchers measured the activity levels of 50 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer who wore a pedometer before undergoing chemoradiation.The researchers found that the performance of patients in each group varied greatly.According to the level of patient activity, half of the inactive patients must be hospitalized during treatment, while only 9% of the more active population needs to be hospitalized.45% of inactive patients are still alive after 18 months, while more than 75% of those who are more active are still alive.”If a patient’s number of steps decreases dramatically during treatment, for example, from 5,000 steps to 2,000 steps per day, this change needs attention. Patients with a sharp reduction in steps need additional care during treatment,” the researchers said.Brother Jie: Today is the weekend. After dinner, go out and walk around ~ 05. Over 70% of oropharyngeal cancer is caused by HPV. January 3, 2020, “New England”, the first of the four major medical journalsThe Journal of the Medical Journal published a review paper on head and neck cancer.Head and neck cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the world. Head and neck cancer includes oropharyngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer, hypopharyngeal cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, cervical esophageal cancer, and thyroid cancer.The article mentions a very important set of data: cases of oropharyngeal cancer caused by or related to HPV16 are increasing year by year, especially among young people in North America and Northern Europe, and in the United States, those diagnosed with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancerThe proportion of head and neck cancer increased from 16.3% in the 1980s to more than 72.7% in the 2000s. These HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers are caused by oral-sex. This also indicates that after oral contact with HPV virus, there is usually10-30 years incubation period.HPV infection can cause a variety of cancers, the most important of which is cervical cancer. 99.7% of cervical cancer is caused by HPV infection. HPV vaccine can effectively prevent cervical cancer and anal genital cancer.Fortunately, the domestic HPV vaccine developed by Xiamen University has also been approved for marketing. It is suitable for 9-45-year-old women, and the price is only 329 yuan / piece, which is much lower than the imported HPV vaccine price, which will benefit more China.crowd.Brother Jie: Plan for HPV vaccine in 2020 can be on the agenda!This week’s message: There is no shortcut or path to research or medical practice. If you choose to become a doctor or researcher, you will have to bear the weight of your life. I hope you will keep your heart.This week’s “Things about Cancer” is here. What news are you interested in?Or do you have any comments or suggestions?Welcome to the comment area to communicate!The above content is only authorized by 39Health.com for exclusive use, please do not reprint without authorization of the copyright party..

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The cause of cancer self-healing has been found!

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“It’s just a cold, drink more hot water, and you’ll be fine in a few days.” “I accidentally kicked my feet, and the ice pack was hot again. Just rest for a few days.”I didn’t rest well, I would go to bed earlier today, and maybe tomorrow. “… In life, you must have heard or even said such things, they all convey the same message: some diseases may heal themselves.Today, with the increasing incidence of cancer, people talk about cancer discoloration. The fear and worry among them come from the cancer itself, but also from the methods of treating cancer. In the understanding of many people, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and other treatment methods are “kill the enemy”One thousand, self-damaging eight hundred “means, so some people put forward the idea of” cancer self-healing. “(Interviewed expert: Liu Peng, Deputy Chief Physician, Department of Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences) Can cancer really heal itself like a common cold?We invite Liu Peng, deputy chief physician of the Department of Oncology, Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, to come and listen to the professional views of clinicians!Three cases of cancer “self-healing” The true incidence of self-healing is extremely low There was once a “self-healing” story that spread on the Internet, saying that the wife of an American scientist’s friend had advanced breast cancer, and the scientist suggested that she go to the hospital for treatment.But instead of going, she chose to travel around the world with her husband.A year and a half later, the cancer cells disappeared and breast cancer healed.It is amazing to see such a magical story without having to distinguish between true and false, but in fact, there have been professional rumors that this scientist and a friend’s wife have breast cancer, but instead his wife died of breast cancer.Before studying breast cancer.The story spread on the Internet is not true, so is there a case of self-healing in the real clinic?This also starts with “what is self-healing”. From Dr. Liu Peng’s point of view, the so-called “self-healing” of cancer includes three cases: the first, some malignant tumors, such as indolent lymphoma, have self-limiting characteristics.For a period of time, or months after the end of treatment, the tumor may shrink or partially disappear, which the patient understands as self-healing; the second type, some patients with malignant tumors suffer from febrile diseases such as bacteremia, and then tumors appearShrinking or disappearing is also understood as self-healing; the third is that the initial diagnosis is not accurate, and the inflammation or benign hyperplasia is mistakenly judged as a malignant tumor. When the infection improves, the tumor is thought to heal itself.”In the strict sense, except for misdiagnosis, the incidence of cancer self-healing is extremely low.” Dr. Liu Peng said.Does maintaining a good attitude and improving immunity help cancer “self-heal”?Although the chance of self-healing is small, in the face of this small hope, some people still believe that there are some methods that can help “self-healing”, such as maintaining a good mentality as much as possible, such as improving immunity.Dr. Liu Peng emphasized that individual cases are not of great reference value to overall cancer patients, and in particular they cannot affect standardized treatment because they hope to heal themselves. After all, “self-healing” is not the main way to cure.However, Dr. Liu Peng also said that for patients with malignant tumors, it is important to have a positive and optimistic attitude towards life. Such patients are often better able to cooperate with the treatment. At the same time as medication, through appropriate exercise (such as slow walking,Gymnastics, yoga, etc.), reasonable dietary conditioning (such as low fat, moderate protein, enough calories, sufficient vitamins, cellulose, etc.), reasonable rest (sleep quality management), to help improve adverse reactions to treatment, and strive to maximize the effect / adverseThe reaction is minimized.As for improving immunity, after the diagnosis of cancer, many patients and family members will buy some products to enhance immunity, thinking that the immunity has improved, which will help the recovery of the disease.In response, Dr. Liu Peng reminded that it is generally believed that strong cellular immunity may reduce the risk of cancer, but there are many ways to evaluate immunity, and different tumors may have different immune capabilities and blindly improve cells.Immune function, there is a risk of immune-related adverse reactions.Therefore, it is not recommended to choose drugs that enhance immune efficacy. Instead, it can improve immunity by improving dietary structure (eat well), reasonable sleep quality management (sleep well), and proper exercise (good exercise).39health.net (www.39.net) original content, which can not be reproduced without authorization, offenders must be investigated.For content cooperation, please contact: 0000 or 0000

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Can gastric cancer be cured?

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China is a “big country of gastric cancer”, and its hot and spicy diet is one of the important reasons for the high incidence of gastric cancer.Gastric cancer is often caused by chronic chronic inflammation of the stomach or polyps, and tumors can be benign and malignant.Patients with advanced gastric cancer will lose their lives. There are many causes of gastric cancer, and each person is different. Therefore, different methods are needed to respond to treatment during treatment. Some friends want to know, can gastric cancer be cured?Whether gastric cancer can be cured depends on the specific situation. If it is an early stage of gastric cancer, it can be cured through active surgery and medication.If it is a medium-term gastric cancer, there is also the possibility of cure. Whether it can be cured in the middle stage has a great relationship with the patient’s physique and mentality. However, if there is almost no cure possible in the advanced stage of gastric cancer, it can actually be treated.To delay life, some people can live with a tumor for a lifetime.The methods of treating gastric cancer include surgery and chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In the early stage of gastric cancer, the tumor is mainly removed, and then the patient takes a drug that kills the cancer cells in combination with the treatment. After taking the drug for a period of time, many patients can achieve clinical cure.In the middle and advanced stages of gastric cancer, in addition to surgical removal of the tumor, chemotherapy is needed to reduce the spread of cancer cells and stabilize the condition.The effects of chemotherapy vary from person to person, and those with better physiques and mentality will have better results.During the treatment of gastric cancer, patients need to avoid taboos depending on the specific situation, but at the same time need to supplement enough nutrition. It is best to rely on liquid food such as porridge to enhance their physical fitness in order to better resist cancer cells.While supplementing nutrition, we must pay attention not to eat fried spicy foods. These foods will increase the spread of cancer cells and produce chemical reactions with the medicines taken, which is not good for the treatment of diseases.Now we know whether gastric cancer can be cured. Many people feel terrible when they hear about cancer. Although advanced cancer is really terrible, we must deal with it with a positive attitude.Experiments have shown that people with a good attitude will have a much better treatment effect, and in the early days, cancer is not incurable, and everyone should not worry too much.

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