The three familiar and unfamiliar words “polyp,” “nodule,” and “cyst” are common on major inspection reports.It is strange because many people do not understand what polyps, nodules and cysts are, and what health risks are suggested?Some people think that these three things are very serious, and if they don’t, they will become cancer, so they cause excessive treatment; some people think that it doesn’t matter, you can observe it, too lightly missed the cancer in the budding stage.A good time to repent.Today, Xiao Jiu invited doctors from multiple departments in the top three hospitals to talk about what kind of polyps, nodules, and cysts have a high chance of cancer, and they must be removed in time.Instructor: Associate Professor of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Lian Lei Professor of Vascular Thyroid and Breast Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Professor Li XiaoxiZhang Yongcheng intestinal polyps: Adenomatous polyps are precancerous intestinal polyps. It is a very high incidence and common disease. Among middle-aged people at a certain age, 20-30% have intestinal polyps.We know that intestinal polyps are closely related to the occurrence of intestinal cancer. Data show that more than 70% of intestinal cancers are developed from intestinal polyps.Of course, not all intestinal polyps become cancerous.Lian Lei said that there are two common types of intestinal polyps, namely hyperplastic polyps and adenomatous polyps, and a relatively rare hamartoma polyp.In general, proliferative polyps and inflammatory polyps will not become cancerous, and other intestinal polyps have a tendency to become cancerous.He reminded patients with intestinal polyps to be particularly vigilant about adenomatous polyps, which are precancerous lesions that should be removed as soon as possible once discovered.But for people over 50 years old, no matter what kind of intestinal polyps, it is recommended to be treated as soon as possible.Because intestinal polyps are prone to recurrence, patients should remember to do colonoscopy regularly after surgery to detect polyp recurrence in time and prevent bowel cancer more effectively.Thyroid nodules: 4 cases indicate that malignancy may be greater. With the popularity of B-ultrasound and the increasing attention paid to healthy physical examinations, the detection rate of thyroid nodules in the normal population is very high.According to a survey by the Endocrinology Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, nearly 1 in 5 people have thyroid nodules.From this estimate, China currently has 280 million patients with thyroid nodules.Thyroid nodules are mostly benign, and many patients can have no symptoms for life, no special treatment is required, and regular follow-up examinations can be used. Some patients even live with their nodules without knowing it.Severe thyroid nodules can become cancerous. Current clinical studies have shown that the malignant probability of thyroid nodules is 7-15%.Doctors can preliminarily determine the nature of thyroid nodules through B-ultrasound, trigonometry, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroglobulin.If B-ultrasound examination shows nodular calcification in the nodules, it indicates a high risk of malignancy.In addition, the blood supply around the nodules is abundant, so we must be vigilant.Li Xiaoxi said that when the thyroid nodules are relatively large, they have been compressed into the respiratory tract and esophagus, causing difficulty in breathing, dysphagia, voice changes, or combined with hyperthyroidism, the growth of nodules is fast, and the cervical lymph nodes are enlarged, which often indicates that the malignancy may be moreHigh, surgery should be considered to remove the nodules.Pulmonary nodules: more than 0.8 cm, irregular edges should be careful. Today, with the high incidence of lung cancer, the popularity of chest CT examination has allowed many people to detect lung nodules.Studies have shown that people over 40 years of age who smoke and passively smoke have too much mental stress and are often exposed to harmful substances. They have a family history of tumors and a history of tuberculosis, and are a high-risk group of pulmonary nodules.Pulmonary examination found that nodules with a diameter of ≤3cm, no satellite-like lesions, no lymph nodes and distant spread, called ordinary lung nodules, and nodules with a diameter of ≤1cm became small nodules in the lungs.Wang Jiyong said that a considerable portion of early lung cancer manifests as nodules, and malignant nodules account for about 30%-40% of lung nodules.Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the detection of lung nodules.In general, the diameter of the nodules is less than 0.8cm, the edges are smooth and clear, and the benign may be larger.Nodules with a diameter of more than 0.8 cm, especially irregular edges, appear to have burr-like changes, lobulated or frosted glass-like changes, suggesting that the malignancy may be very large and should be treated as soon as possible.In addition, he reminded that people with high risk of lung cancer, such as long-term smoking, age over 40, chest pain, cough and other symptoms, have a family history of lung cancer, even small nodules of the lung less than 0.8 cm, can not be careless, may be early stage of lung cancer.Breast nodules/cysts: not painful or itchy, but more dangerous due to improper diet, excessive stress, and changes in hormone levels, leading to an increasing incidence of breast cancer, and the incidence of breast cancer is showing a younger trend.Possible strokes.Many girls feel breast lumps, or B-ultrasound to detect breast nodules/cysts, very worried about cancer..
In general, breast nodules have clear borders, smooth and movable, and have breast pain symptoms, usually breast hyperplasia or benign breast fibroids, and surgery is not necessary.Zhang Yongcheng said that female friends tend to ignore painless nodules or lumps in the breast. This kind of nodule is more terrible than symptomatic nodules. It is likely to be a sign of breast cancer.In particular, the nodules are relatively hard, with fixed position and shape, no pain, irregular borders, and a high probability of malignant transformation. It is recommended to be surgically removed as soon as possible.The original content of 39Health.com (www.39.net) shall not be reproduced without authorization, and offenders will be investigated.For content cooperation, please contact: 0000 or 0000