Which dairy products are healthier?

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1 Milk Cheats: Familiar and unfamiliar, do you drink milk? Have n’t you seen cow running, have n’t you ever drank milk?U.S. guidelines recommend that adults and children 9 years or older need to consume 3 servings of milk, cheese, yogurt, or other dairy products per day, 8 ounces (237mL) per serving.This standard can meet the human body’s nutritional requirements for calcium and reduce the risk of fractures, but the health effects of large intakes of dairy products are still unresolved. Some people even worry that too many dairy products may cause adverse health consequences.Therefore, it is necessary to fully evaluate the role of dairy product intake in human nutrition and disease prevention.A recent review published in NEJM comprehensively elaborated the relationship between milk and human health from multiple perspectives, such as the composition of dairy products, the role of dairy products in growth and development, the relationship between dairy products and bone health, and the risk of fractures [1,2]].Milk is originally a food for young mammals, which can provide it with suitable ingredients and a variety of anabolic hormones.In order to increase milk production, milk produced by cows may contain higher levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I); at the same time, because cows are basically pregnant, progesterone, estrogen andOther hormone levels will also be higher.In addition to milk, various dairy products have been invented.For example, cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products made by fermentation may cause peptide hormone denaturation, protein antigenicity changes, reduced lactose content, and changes in flora composition during the production of these dairy products. Buttering can also be used to separate butterFor low-fat dairy products and whey protein, vitamin A or vitamin D can be added during processing, which also changes the nutritional content of dairy products.Dairy products from cows and other mammals have always been part of the traditional diet of Westerners, and milk has gradually become a part of many people’s daily lives in China.But do you really drink milk?Next, let’s take a look at what has been said in the recent “Cheat Drinking Chess” published by NEJM!2 Comprehensive inventory: From growth and development to the risk of deathIn addition, dairy products are not essential. If you can fully supplement vitamin B12 with very little intake of food of animal origin, or supplement vitamin D when the sun is not enough, you can also ensure that children do not consume dairy products.Normal development.In addition, in the case of sufficient nutrition, milk intake can also promote growth (It seems that the advertisement of drinking milk to grow tall does not deceive me …).Although it is not clear whether this result is due to specific amino acids, anabolic hormones, or other factors, as far as we know, a large number of branched chain amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, andValine, which is the key to determining protein quality.The intake of branched chain amino acids can increase the effect of IGF-I-mediated growth hormone; at the same time, leucine can activate the mTOR pathway, promote cell replication, and inhibit apoptosis.However, it is important to note that faster growth and higher heights are not all good for health.Tall people have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, but they have an increased risk of cancer, hip fractures, and pulmonary embolism.2 Do n’t drink too much, the more calcium you get, the more likely you are to fracture. The main reason people insist on drinking milk is to add calcium and meet bone health needs.However, the study found that countries with the highest milk and calcium intakes tend to have a higher risk of hip fractures.The relationship between the two may not be causal, and vitamin D may have an unclear and unclear effect on this result.Results from cross-sectional studies suggest that calcium intake may not be related to bone mineral density of the hip bone; prospective studies also do not seem to support the benefit of increased milk intake for hip fracture prevention.In fact, the current recommended milk intake in the United States is based on a calcium intake / excretion balance assessment study that included only 155 adults [7].The relationship between calcium supplementation and fracture risk is even more confusing, as many supplements contain both calcium and vitamin D, making it harder to assess the effects of calcium supplementation alone.The results of the meta-analysis found that calcium supplementation did not reduce all vertebral bone fractures, and even found that calcium supplementation participants had a higher risk of hip fractures [8].Do children need calcium supplements?It is also difficult to answer this question because children are growing.The US recommendation suggests that children between 4 and 8 years of age need 1000 mg of calcium per day, but the UK recommendation confirms that 450 to 550 mg is sufficient [4, 5].Cross-sectional studies in the United States have shown that taller people are more likely to fracture [9]. Calcium supplemented with milk may not be enough to offset the risk of fractures that grow taller; results from cohort studies also suggest that males drink an extra cup of milk a day during puberty and fracture their hips laterRisk increases by 9% [10].Therefore, the current evidence does not support a large intake of milk during puberty to prevent future fractures.In fact, fractures occur more frequently in countries or regions with the highest milk intake.3 Skimmed milk is as fat as full-fat milk. Although the US Department of Agriculture recommends low-fat milk for weight control, the results of the current study have not found that adults who choose low-fat milk have an advantage over full-fat milk in controlling weight..In children and adolescents, even low-fat milk intake has been found to be associated with greater long-term weight gain; the only option that may help control weight is to drink yogurt.The results of three large cohort studies showed that the intake of whole milk, low-fat milk, and cheese was not significantly related to changes in body weight, but the intake of yogurt was associated with a decrease in weight gain [11].This result may be the result of the improved intestinal flora composition of yogurt, but it may also be caused by the healthier lifestyle of participants who drink yogurt, and the specific mechanism behind it is still a mystery.4 Relationship between milk intake and blood pressure, lipids, and heart disease Milk contains more potassium, which may have the effect of lowering blood pressure. Low-fat milk is also included in the DASH diet, which is used to lower blood pressure.However, because Deshu diet recommends a low-sodium, high-fruit and vegetable diet, the role of low-fat milk in lowering blood pressure is uncertain.Compared with sugary drinks or other refined carbohydrates, milk may have a hypotensive effect; however, if milk is used instead of nuts, beans or whole grains, the effect may not be the same [12, 13].In terms of blood lipids, most suggestions are more inclined to low-fat dairy products, in order to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels by reducing saturated fat intake.Using carbohydrates instead of saturated fats can reduce LDL-c, but it may lead to reduced particles of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and LDL-c and increase inflammation indicators. Using unsaturated fats instead of saturated fats canAvoid these problems while LDL-c decreases [14-16].Dairy products themselves have no clear relationship with the risk of coronary heart disease or stroke, but the results are different when compared with different foods.Compared with red meat, whole milk and low-fat milk have a lower risk of coronary heart disease; but dairy products have a higher risk of coronary heart disease compared to fish and nuts.Compared with polyunsaturated fats or plant-derived fats, dairy products have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease; but if the diet contains high levels of carbohydrates, a moderate intake of dairy products can actually reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.5 The relationship between milk intake and lower risk of type 1 diabetes remains unclear, and milk intake may be associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes.Drinking milk has a lower risk of diabetes than drinking sugary beverages or fruit juices, but higher than drinking coffee [17].6 What is the relationship between drinking milk and cancer risk?Ingestion of dairy products is associated with the risk of prostate cancer, especially invasive or lethal prostate cancer [18, 19], but the impact on breast cancer risk is still controversial [18, 20], both of which may be related to IGF-I intake is related.The total intake of dairy products is associated with a higher risk of endometrial cancer, which may be related to the content of sex hormones in dairy products [21]; meanwhile, dairy product intake does not seem to be related to the risk of ovarian cancer [22];The calcium in the product may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer [20].Since almost all research on dairy products and cancer risk is currently conducted in middle-aged and elderly people, there is still a lot of room for exploration of the relationship between childhood or early adult milk product intake and future cancer risk.7 Allergies and intolerances Up to 4% of babies may be allergic to proteins in milk, which may cause nutritional problems [23].At the same time, milk intake may increase the risk of asthma, eczema, and food allergies [23, 24], and may also trigger asthma attacks and other related diseases after childhood [25, 26].The use of hydrolyzed protein formula may help alleviate the risk of allergic diseases and eczema [27], lactose intolerance greatly limits milk intake, and the replacement of milk with soy milk may help alleviate lactose intolerance[28].8 Overall risk of death The relationship between dairy products and overall risk of death varies greatly with the specific types of milk and dairy products consumed and the foods compared to them.A meta-analysis of cohort studies restricting milk or dairy product intake has nothing to do with overall risk of death [29], but whole milk is associated with a higher overall risk of death [30].Depending on the source of the protein, using milk instead of processed red meat and eggs can reduce the overall risk of death, but dairy products replacing plant-derived protein can increase the risk of death. Dairy products and unprocessed red meat, poultry, and fishIn contrast, intake-related death risks are similar [31].3 Recommended guidelines: The guidelines are very different. The two authors of the review, Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH, and David S. Ludwig, MD, PhD are from the Harvard-Chen Zengxi School of Public Health, and also work at Harvard Medical School., Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston Children’s Hospital, and more.After reviewing the nutritional content of milk and dairy products and their health effects, they also pointed out: Organic milk contains lower levels of IGF-I than traditionally produced milk, but has not studied and compared the effects of two types of milk onPeople’s health impacts; as the cows are fed with forage during organic milk production, the levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and beta carotene may be slightly higher.At the same time, the issue of organic milk is not worth tangling. People should worry about the greenhouse gases and related climate change, water pollution, and antibiotic resistance in milk production.Regarding the problem of drinking milk in daily life, they think that the current goal of consuming 3 or more dairy products per day seems unreasonable..
The optimal milk intake per person is related to the overall quality of the diet.Children in low-income areas have lower dietary quality, so dairy products can obviously improve their nutritional status; for people with higher dietary quality, increasing the intake of dairy products may not bring obvious benefits, but they should worryHarm from excessive intake.In addition to milk intake, calcium and vitamin D can also be obtained from other foods.For example, calcium can be obtained from kale, broccoli, tofu, nuts, beans, and calcium-fortified orange juice; the cost of choosing a vitamin D supplement is much lower than drinking milk.After disagreeing with the current guidelines, the two authors also raised their own expectations for future guidelines.They believe that the recommended intake of milk and dairy products should be around 0 to 2 servings per day for adults to be more acceptable; low-fat milk should not be emphasized better than full-fat milk; high risk of being overweight or obese should be suggestedPeople don’t choose sweetened dairy products.The above content is only authorized for exclusive use by, please do not reprint without the authorization of the copyright party.


The author ouyangshaoxia