(Ma Guansheng, Yan Xinyu, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University) In the new year, Health Times will send you a 2019 most practical lunar calendar. I hope that in the new year, each of us can eat healthy, stay away from the disease and make a long-term plan for health. In the first month, try the principle of wild diet: meat food, leisurely: during the Spring Festival, family and friends gather together to eat, drink, and eat more meat. Eating too much meat will increase fat intake and increase total energy intake. In order to avoid the “three pounds of fat every holiday season”, it is necessary to stop. Food is diversified, come to “coarse”: often eat coarse grains, such as cornmeal, millet, etc., to prevent the intake of B vitamins. Colorful fruits and vegetables, better “color”: It is best to have vegetables and eat fruits every day. At least half of the vegetables in the vegetables are dark, and dark vegetables such as green and seaweed contain more vitamins and antioxidants than light ones. Keywords for this month: Wild vegetables This season, some wild vegetables have grown and can be eaten. You can choose some wild vegetables according to local conditions, such as leeks and bitter vegetables. Eat wild vegetables, fresh, simmered and cold salad is the most suitable way to eat, you can also steamed and wrap the noodles, in addition, with the meat to make stuffing, wrapped dumplings, fragrant and delicious. Need to pay attention to the wild vegetables that you don’t know, don’t dig, don’t eat. February Spring Festival eating spring 韭 diet principle: strong bones: eat calcium products, beans and other calcium-rich foods every day, is conducive to bone health. Bathe in the sun. Stomach and stomach: often eat yam, leeks and other foods with high dietary fiber content, help promote gastrointestinal motility, prevent constipation and intestinal cancer. Keywords for this month: Amaranth spring season, it is worth eating. It is tender, fresh, beautiful and delicious! The dietary fiber content of leek is very rich, which can improve gastrointestinal motility and keep the stool smooth. At the same time, there are sulfur compounds, volatile essential oils, saponins, flavonoids and other substances in the leek, which have certain bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effects. It is a great way to eat leeks, such as stuffing, fried meat, and cold dishes. Yangchun March tastes the principle of musk diet: the Qingqing regiment is not excessive: many places have the habit of eating glutinous rice and green squad, but they are all made of glutinous rice. Excessive consumption can lead to indigestion, and children, the elderly and the gastrointestinal function are not. The best should eat less glutinous rice and its products. Regularly eat seasonal vegetables: often eat seasonal vegetables such as citron, glutinous rice, silk flowers, etc., vegetables are recommended to buy now, fresh vegetables with high water content and rich in vitamins and minerals, often eat fresh vegetables can supplement a variety of nutrients. Eat one egg a day: “March 3, eat eggs”, and some places have the tradition of eating eggs at Ching Ming Festival. However, many people are worried about eating high cholesterol in eggs. In fact, for most people with normal blood cholesterol levels, eating one egg a day is no problem. Keywords for this month: 槐花洋槐 flowers generally bloom in the April to May of the annual solar calendar. From the perspective of nutrients, acacia contains vitamins such as vitamin E and B vitamins, mineral elements such as iron, selenium, calcium and magnesium, as well as a large amount of flavonoids. It is a good way to make scallions into cakes, dumplings, etc. The principle of mulberry leaf diet in April is: drink more soup, less “cold stimulation”: drink boiled water several times a day, or drink green tea, mung bean soup and other beverages to relieve trouble and thirst. Drink more soup to regulate taste and enhance appetite. Do not drink a large glass of cold beer or iced drinks and other irritating cooling activities. Eat more fruits and vegetables, eat less greasy: this season, a wide variety of vegetables and fruits. The nutrients of fruits and vegetables are especially rich in some dark fruits and vegetables, such as carrots and other carotenoids and phytochemicals, which can supplement vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. Eating greasy foods will increase the burden on the gastrointestinal tract, and it is easy to bloating, and does not think about eating and getting tired. More cooked food, less cold: At this time people often like to eat raw fruits, seafood and other foods. However, in summer, the temperature is high, and various germs and parasites are easy to breed. If you eat unsanitary food at the “three no” stalls, you may be infected with the disease. Keywords for this month: mulberry, mulberry mulberry, season, full of anthocyanins, the entrance is like a sweet candy, whether it is a small snack or a mulberry sauce sandwiched in bread, it is good. In addition to mulberry, mulberry leaves can also be eaten, can be cold, stuffing, making noodles, making cakes, making soups, etc. In May, the fire-fighting principle of eating bitterness: pay attention to breakfast intake: eating or not eating breakfast, insufficient nutrition of breakfast, will directly affect the efficiency and physical fitness of the morning study.Have a good breakfast, have a full lunch, have a full meal, and have a moderate amount of food. Three meals should be varied, pay attention to foods rich in high-quality protein, such as fish and shrimp, and fresh fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C. Eat less greasy food: the weather is getting hotter, and the pace of life of the candidates is fast, the pressure is high, and the digestive function is often declining. It is recommended not to eat or eat fried foods with high fat content. Appropriately eat “bitter”: bad appetite, may wish to eat bitter vegetables. Bitter vegetables can clear the heat and increase appetite. Common bitter vegetables include bitter gourd, lettuce, and oily wheat. Drink less drink and drink more water: more sweating in summer, easy to lead to water shortage in the body, dizziness, headache and other symptoms, affecting the learning efficiency of candidates, so it is necessary to urge candidates to drink enough water, drink less. Keywords for this month: bitter gourd is easy to have an appetite in summer, and bitter melon may help you. Bitter melon can be cold-boiled, cut it into a silk or slice, boil it with boiling water and then use cold water to pass it over, drain the water, and mix the cold dishes of various flavors according to the preference. The principle of eating jaundice in June is to ensure the intake of high-quality protein: the energy provided by protein in the diet should account for about 12% of the total energy, of which high-quality protein should account for more than half. Foods rich in high-quality protein include lean meat, fish, eggs, milk, soybeans and soy products. Eat foods rich in minerals: To prevent heatstroke, you should eat potassium-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables and beans every day, magnesium-rich foods such as green vegetables and nuts, calcium-rich foods such as milk and dairy products, and iron-rich foods. Animal liver and lean meat, etc. Timely replenishment of water: Don’t wait for thirst to drink water, drink water regularly, a small number of times. You can choose boiled water, tea, lemonade, mung bean soup, etc. Eat less roadside stalls: In the high temperature and high humidity environment in summer, the proliferation of various pathogenic microorganisms is accelerated, food is prone to spoilage and deterioration, and attention should be paid to all aspects of food purchase, processing and storage. Do not go to the roadside stalls and food stalls with poor sanitation. Key words this month: Huangpi folks have the saying that “small summer yellow ginseng ginseng”, the squid before and after the summer is the most delicious. Astragalus membranaceus plays an important role in maintaining the potassium-sodium balance and acid-base balance of body fluids. Xiaoshu should not be too greasy, so it is better to stew with jaundice. In July, the principle of eating and drinking porridge should be avoided: If you blindly “autumn and paste”, it will easily lead to weight gain and even obesity. Eat some potatoes: food is diverse, cereals are the mainstay, eat some potatoes, such as yam, sweet potatoes and so on. At the same time, eating vegetables and fruits often can promote good health, maintain normal function of the intestines, and improve immunity. Keywords of this month: miscellaneous grains and porridge with rice and miscellaneous grains as raw materials, in line with the principle of “grain-based, coarse and fine” in the “Chinese Dietary Guidelines (2016)”. The porridge is highly inclusive and has a natural aroma. Can also be combined with a variety of foods, add some chicken, duck, fish and egg milk, taste and nutrition are strengthened; add some sweet potato yam potatoes, increase potato intake, health and so on. In August, the principle of eating more potatoes in the autumn: food diversity: in this season’s diet, still follow the general principle of reasonable diet and balanced nutrition. You can eat potatoes regularly. The Chinese Dietary Guidelines (2016) recommends: 50-100 grams of potato per day. Keywords of this month: high content of dietary fiber in sweet potato and sweet potato can promote gastrointestinal motility and prevent constipation. The content of carotene in red sweet potato is higher than that of white sweet potato. It is recommended to increase the intake of potato properly, eat 5 times a week, and eat 1~2 two each time. The simplest and healthier way to eat potatoes is to steam, boil or roast, and to retain more nutrients. It is not recommended to choose processed potatoes such as potato chips and French fries. September frost eating persimmon diet principle: anti-autumn dry, make up enough water: enough to drink water, water can add some honey, eat fruits and vegetables every day. Keywords for this month: Persimmon “Frost falls, eat persimmon”, persimmons are generally fully mature before and after the frost, at this time the skin is thin and delicious. However, eating persimmon should be stopped in moderation. It is generally believed that in the case of non-fasting, it is better to eat persimmon no more than 200 grams. Try not to eat persimmons on an empty stomach. In October, the principle of eating and drinking is indispensable: the food should be sufficient, and the energy should be balanced: the winter is cold and the human body needs more energy, and it needs to pay attention to the sufficient supply of energy. To ensure a sufficient amount of staple food, it is recommended to eat half a catty to eighty-two cereals a day, such as steamed bread, rice and so on. There should be three to two and a half pounds of animal food every day, including lean meat, eggs, poultry, fish or milk, and often change the type.Eat less cold, drink more porridge soup: eat cold food in winter, easy to stimulate the stomach, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea and so on. It is recommended to use cooking methods such as stewing, boiling, steaming and steaming as much as possible. Eat more fruits and vegetables, strong body resistance: vegetables and fruits are rich in vitamins and minerals, as well as rich dietary fiber, can improve the body’s ability to adapt to cold, can also promote gastrointestinal motility and prevent constipation. Appropriate amount of supplement, point to the end: winter outdoor activities are reduced, it is prone to vitamin D deficiency. Pay attention to foods rich in calcium and vitamin D, such as milk, soy products, seafood, animal liver, etc. Nutrient supplements can be chosen, but in moderation. Keywords of this month: spinach spinach, like other leafy vegetables, has the characteristics of sufficient water, low energy, high dietary fiber, multivitamins and minerals, high potassium and low sodium, and cold spinach. Adding some nuts is a good way to eat. Eat more dumplings in the winter of November: Eat some animal foods and legumes: Protein is the material basis of the body’s immune function, and too little intake will cause a decline in immunity. The protein contained in animal foods and legumes is more easily digested and absorbed, so eat it in moderation every day. Eat foods rich in vitamin A, iron and other nutrients: In the cold winter, people tend to wear heavy, the body resistance is poor. Foods rich in vitamin A, vitamin E, iron, zinc and other nutrients can enhance the resistance, mainly animal liver, vegetable oil, nuts, beans, fresh vegetables, fruits, sesame sauce, shellfish and so on. Keywords for this month: Although dumpling dumplings are small, it is easy to achieve a variety of food. The dumpling skin is a cereal, the dumpling stuffing can be simmered, can be vegetarian, and can also be used with savory. Nutritious and healthy dumpling stuffing should be reasonably matched with vegetables and meat. The ratio is preferably 3 to 4 servings of vegetables with 1 serving of meat. Meat should be lean, and the type of vegetables should be avoided. Note that it is not advisable to add too much vegetable oil when filling, and the amount of salt should be strictly controlled. Eat a little bit of radish in December and eat cold: the right amount of meat: this season is cold, you need to get enough energy to withstand the cold. Therefore, intake of carbohydrates, protein and fat should be sufficient. Meat should be ingested in moderation. Drink plenty of water, eat enough fruits and vegetables: in the cold season, people are not willing to drink water, the indoor temperature in the north is high, prone to water, fruit and vegetable intake is insufficient, dryness and constipation. Therefore, they should be supplemented in time. Keywords of this month: white radish winter radish mainly refers to white radish. From the analysis of nutrients, white radish has a large amount of water, low energy and fat, rich nutrients, and refreshing taste. White radish can be eaten raw directly, or soup, such as mutton radish soup, can also be fried, such as braised radish. .
How to eat in 12 months a year?