Carotid intima-media thickness progression as a surrogate indicator of cardiovascular disease risk

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Recently, a research article was published in Circulation, an authoritative journal in the cardiovascular field..The researchers systematically compiled data from randomized controlled trials.The cIMT is evaluated by the average value of the common carotid artery; if not available, the maximum value of the common carotid artery or other cIMT measurements are used.The main outcome of the study was the combined CVD endpoint, defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, or fatal CVD.Before using the Bayesian meta-regression method to assess the association between the two, the researchers estimated the effect of intervention on cIMT progression and CVD occurrence in each trial.The researchers analyzed data from 119 randomized controlled trials involving 100,667 patients (mean age 62 years, 42% female).During an average follow-up of 3.7 years, 12,038 patients had a combined CVD endpoint.In all interventions, every 10 μm reduction in cIMT progress each year reduces the relative risk of CVD by 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.87-0.94), while the relative risk of CVD that is not related to cIMT progress is 0.92 (0.87-0.97).In summary, the researchers estimate that the relative risk of interventions that reduce cIMT progress by 10, 20, 30, or 40 μm each year is reduced to 0.84 (0.75-0.93), 0.76 (0.67-0.85), 0.69 (0.59-0.79) or0.63 (0.52-0.74).The results were similar when the trials were grouped by type of intervention, time of implementation, time of ultrasound follow-up, availability of individual participant data, primary and secondary prevention trials, cIMT measurement type, and proportion of female patients.This shows that the degree of influence of intervention on the progress of cIMT can predict the degree of reduction of CVD risk.These data support cIMT reduction progress as a surrogate marker of CVD risk.The above content is only authorized for exclusive use by

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What are the causes of lymphoma?


When it comes to cancer, people tend to avoid it, and lymphoma is one of the common clinical tumor diseases. Although this type of cancer may be cured, it will also bring great health to the body.Injury, understanding the causes of lymphoma is conducive to the prevention and treatment of disease, so what are the causes of lymphoma?Let’s take a look at the causes of lymphoma.1. The physical cause of lymphoma.The occurrence of lymphoma is related to radiation factors.According to relevant research, the incidence of lymphoma has a great relationship with the dose of absorbed radiation. In addition, the incidence is also related to the age at the time of radiation. Studies have shown that for people who are frequently exposed to radiation before the age of 25The incidence of lymphoma is often much higher than other populations.2. Chemical causes of lymphoma.According to clinical practice, some chemicals are also toxic, which is one of the main causes of lymphoma. Experts said that alkylating agents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, and aromatic amine compounds are relatively common chemical carcinogens.It is important to note that these chemical carcinogens have a great relationship with the cause of lymphoma.3. Immunological factors of lymphoma.According to experts, malignant lymphoma is a kind of malignant tumor of the immune system, and immunodeficiency is one of the important factors leading to the incidence of malignant lymphoma. Generally speaking, the human immune system is very powerful, and it has a very good immune surveillance function., Usually can play a good role in the body’s mutation or cancer cells can be eliminated.It should be noted that for immunodeficiency patients, infections are very likely to occur, especially viral infections.4. Genetic factors of lymphoma.The incidence of lymphomas is also closely related to genetic factors. According to relevant investigations, the incidence of lymphomas sometimes shows obvious family aggregation. For example, siblings can suffer from malignant lymphomas one after another or at the same time.In other words, the incidence of lymphoma has a great relationship with genetic factors.Knowing the causes of lymphoma is conducive to the prevention and treatment of disease. Everyone should actively avoid these factors from happening to themselves, and develop a good lifestyle, especially pay attention to not staying up late for a long time.

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